The Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD ) partnership works to promote the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by protecting forests in the developing countries through positive incentives. It is regarded as an essential component of the post-2012 climate regime to stabilize GHG emissions and engage the developing countries in worldwide mitigation endeavors. If cost-efficient carbon benefits can be achieved through REDD, increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations could be slowed, effectively buying much needed time for countries to move to lower emissions technologies. We chose tropical forests in Xishuangbanna of China as our study area and took the most severe deforestation from 1976 to 2007 as the baseline of REDD. Land use information was obtained through the combination of Landsat TM images and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) masks. Forest carbon storage change in the study area was firstly calculated based on IPCC methodology. Secondly ecosystem-based benefits from REDD were assessed systematically. Our results showed that from 1976 to 2007, the natural forest carbon storage decreased from 78.24% to 50.52% of total carbon storage, which was the main reason for the reduction of carbon storage in Xishuangbanna. At the meantime, significant degradation of ecosystem services emerged. This was demonstrated by two important indicators: forest fragmentation and soil erosion. For example, from 1976 to 2007 the percentage change in the carbon stocks was 1.4%, accompanying with increasing 8.16% in number of patches (NP), 51.39% in Shannon’s diversity index (SHDI) and 34.07% in shannon’s evenness index (SHEI). Meanwhile, mean path area (AREA_MN) and patch cohesion index (COHESION) decreased by 26.26% and 2.13%, respectively. It suggested that the forest ecosystem was changing in both carbon storage and forest landscape structure. The number of patches (NP) and average nearest neighbor distance (ENN_MN) of natural forest increased by 120.00% and 25.21%, respectively, and the average patch area (AREA_MN) decreased by 71.98%, indicating the degree of exacerbated fragmentation in natural forest. In this sense, carbon emission and forest fragmentation were well integrated. Furthermore, we investigated relationship between carbon emission and soil erosion and high correlation was found. For example, carbon emissions which accounted for 45% of the total located in the high erosion area, which is 18% of the whole study area. As a result, when forests that would have been lost or degraded are retained or restored through REDD, they deliver ‘multiple benefits’ in addition to protecting or enhancing carbon stocks. These ecosystem-based benefits may include conservation of forest biodiversity, water regulation, soil conservation, timber, forest foods and other non-timber forest products, most of which have been demonstrated or proved in this study. By securing benefits beyond carbon, REDD has the potential to encourage countries to realize a broader range of values.
刘桂芳,关瑞敏,夏梦琳,卢鹤立,徐明,郑辉.西双版纳地区REDD碳效应与生态效益评估.生态学报,,(). http://dx. doi. org/10.5846/stxb202003290735复制