农业环境效率是衡量经济与资源环境协调发展的重要指标，研究农业环境效率对实现农业资源的高效率利用具有重要意义。基于2004-2019年中国30个省（市、区）面板数据，运用SBM （Slacks-based model）模型、空间马尔科夫链、GIS技术和空间计量模型，分析了农业环境效率的时空演变特征，研究了农业环境效率变动的驱动因素。结果表明：（1）2004-2019年，考虑非期望产出的农业环境效率要低于不考虑非期望产出情况，呈持续上升趋势；区域差异整体呈倒"V "型变化趋势，东西方向上递减，南北方向上呈" U"型趋势特征。（2）中国不同等级的农业环境效率空间差异明显，地理空间格局在空间演变过程具有重要作用，空间关联性特征显著，不同类型的演变存在显著的时空惯性。（3）中国农业环境效率存在空间溢出效应，农业经济水平、环境规制、农业生产能力是提升农业环境效率的关键因素，财政支农水平、工业化水平、农作物种植结构、农业机械强度则是制约效率提升的约束要素。
The agricultural environmental efficiency which combines both economic and environmental performance is of great significance to the efficient utilization of agricultural resources. Taking 30 provinces (cities and districts) in China as the research object, this paper used SBM (Slacks-based model) model, spatial Markov chain, GIS technology to depict the spatio-temporal evolution characteristics of agricultural environmental efficiency, then analyzed the influencing factors by using spatial Durbin model. The results showed that:(1) The agricultural environmental efficiency based on the non-expected output was lower than that without the non-expected output, which presented a continuous upward trend. The regional difference indicated an overall inverted V trend, the agricultural environmental efficiency decreased in the east-west direction, and the south-north direction showed a U shape pattern. (2) The different levels of the agricultural environmental efficiency had obviously spatial differences and spatial correlation characteristics. The geospatial structure played an important role in the spatio-temporal evolution and the spatial agglomeration was significant, and the evolution of different efficiency types had significant temporal and spatial inertia. (3) The agricultural environment efficiency had spatial spillover effects, the agricultural economic level, the environmental regulation and the agricultural production capacity played significant roles in improving the agricultural environmental efficiency, while the agriculture financial support, the industrialization level, the crop planting structure and the agricultural machinery strength would inhibit its development.