National Natural Science Foundation of China (41977421); Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA23100200, XDA20010202, XDA19040301)
掌握生态退化区和研究热点区的空间分布、退化区生态系统的演变态势是认识生态问题、开展生态治理的基础，但目前缺乏全球主要生态退化区空间分布图等基础数据和相关知识。应用多源数据集成融合、长时序卫星遥感分析、互联网文献大数据建模分析等方法，对以荒漠化、水土流失、石漠化为代表的全球主要生态退化类型区的空间分布、演变态势、研究关注热度等进行了研究。结果表明：（1）全球荒漠化区面积约15.4×106 km2，水土流失区面积约14.3×106 km2，石漠化区面积约1.1×106 km2；这些生态退化区主要分布在非洲撒哈拉沙漠南北边缘，欧洲西部、地中海沿岸、东欧平原南部，南亚印度河流域，中国西北地区、云贵高原，北美洲落基山脉以及南美洲阿根廷等地区。（2）2000年以来，上述退化区中约有3.9%的面积处于退化加重态势，73.3%的面积处于脆弱平衡状态，22.8%的区域出现好转趋势。（3）全球生态退化研究热点区的分布与全球生态退化区的分布总体呈现一致性。但在沙特阿拉伯中部、哈萨克斯坦北部，巴西大部，安哥拉、南非等生态退化区，存在生态系统继续恶化、缺乏研究界足够关注的情况。研究成果深化了对全球主要生态退化区分布格局的认识，对于防范全球发展和建设中出现加重的生态退化等具有参考价值。
Knowing the spatial distribution of ecological degradation regions and research hotspot regions, as well as the evolution of ecosystems in the degradation regions are the basis for understanding ecological problems and ecological environment management. However, there is a lack of basic data and relevant knowledge research in the world. In this paper, multi-source data integration, long-term satellite remote sensing analysis, and the Internet literature big data modeling analysis are applied to study the spatial distribution, evolution trend and the research hotspots of global major ecological degradation, i.e. land desertification, soil erosion and karst rocky desertification. The results show that:(1) the global desertification area is about 15.4×106 km2, the soil erosion area is about 14.3×106 km2, and the karst rocky desertification area is about 1.1×106 km2. The global major ecological degradation regions are mainly distributed in northern and southern margin of the Sahara in Africa, the Mediterranean coast in Western Europe and southern plain of the Eastern European, the Indus River Basin in South Asia, the Northwestern China and the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau of China, the Rocky Mountains in North America and Argentina in South America. (2) Since 2000, about 3.9% of the above degraded areas have been deteriorating, 73.3% of them were still in a fragile dynamic balance state, and 22.8% of them have been improved. In terms of spatial distribution, the attention of global researchers is generally consistent with that of typical ecological degradation regions. However, there are still some areas where the ecosystems continue to deteriorate, but at the same time they lack sufficiently scientific research attention, on the central Saudi Arabia and Northern Kazakhstan in Asia, Brazil in South America, Angola and South Africa in southern Africa, etc. The research results deepen people's understanding of the distribution pattern of global major ecological degradation regions, and have reference value for preventing the aggravated ecological degradation in the developments and engineering construction worldwide.