大兴安岭多布库尔保护区乔、灌、草及更新层植物多样性、群落结构特征及其耦合关系研究
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1.东北林业大学森林植物生态学教育部重点实验室;2.中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所;3.大兴安岭行署资源管理局

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国家自然基金(31670699,41730641)、中央高校高层次人才持续发展专项(2572017DG04)和龙江学者支持计划(T201702)


Study on Plant Diversity, Community Structure and Coupling Relationships of Arbor, Shrub, Herb and Regeneration Layer in Dobukur Reserve, Daxing
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1.Key Laboratory of Forest Plant Ecology of Ministry of Education,Northeast Forestry University;2.Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology,Chinese Academy of Sciences;3.Resource Management Bureau,Daxing’anling Administration Office;4.Northeast Forestry University

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    摘要:

    天然林植物多样性保护对于其生态服务功能至关重要,而林分个体大小、群落特征及乔灌草垂直结构对其变化的贡献及最主要影响因子的揭示,将有助于基于林分结构调整提升植物多样性保护。基于此,本文选择大兴安岭多布库尔国家级自然保护区森林群落为研究对象,调查该区域42块乔木样地、210块灌木、草本和更新层样地内植物个体大小(树高、胸径、枝下高、灌木高、草高等)和乔、灌、草相关群落特征(乔灌草的密度和盖度等),记录样地植物科属种特征并计算植物多样性和均匀度参数特征,频率分布、冗余排序与方差分解分析相结合,揭示该区域植物多样性与群落结构特征。结果表明:1)多布库尔主要树种为落叶松,相对多度为42%,其次是白桦和黑桦;灌木以榛子比例最高,达到60%;草本共发现116种,其中莎草科羊须草所占比例最大,超过10%;更新层主要树种为蒙古栎,相对多度为54%,其次为白桦。2)植物种类丰富度和多样性均表现为草本层>乔木层>灌木层>更新层,灌木层均匀度最高。3)乔木层平均树高13.2m,平均胸径为14.3cm,平均枝下高为7.5m,平均郁闭度0.73,平均密度为1500株/ha;灌木平均高1.1m,平均地径1.1cm,盖度23.2%,平均密度1.3株/m2;草本平均高37.6cm,盖度为54.4%;更新层平均高1.83m,平均地径1.20cm,平均密度为0.17株/m2。4)冗余分析和方差分解分析结果表明林分个体大小特征的独立效应和乔木层特征对多样性变化贡献最大,乔木层树高和更新层密度与植物多样性变化具有最紧密关系。大兴安岭地区森林已经全部纳入国家天然林保护工程,上述国家自然保护区相关数据是当地本底数据(当地森林以幼龄林为主,尚需要更长时间保护),将为进一步保护区政策制定与天然林保护工程实施提供支持。

    Abstract:

    Biodiversity conservation including plant species in natural forests is very important for their ecological service function, and decoupling the association among individual features, plant community characteristics and species diversity will help to upgrade the structural-oriented solution for well protection of local plant species. Based on this, by using Dobukur National Reserve at Daxinganling Mts., we investigated total 42 plots(30m*30m) for trees, 210 plots for shrub and regeneration layers(2m*2m) and 210 plots for herb layer (1m*1m), and detailed recorded the individual size (tree height, diameter at breast height, basal diameter, branch height, shrub height, herb height, etc) and their community traits (arbor, shrub, herb and regenerated seedling density and coverage), and all species names (genus and family) for the calculation of plant diversity indices. All these data were used for frequency distribution, redundancy ordination and variation partitioning for finding their basic features of the forests and decoupling their associations. The results showed that:(1) Larix gmelinii is the main tree species in Dobukur, with a relative abundance of 42%, followed by Betula platyphylla and Betula nigra. The proportion of hazelnut (Corylus heterophylla) is the highest among shrubs, reaching 60%. A total of 116 species of herb layers were found, of which Carex callitrichos accounted for the largest proportion, exceeding 10%. The main tree species in the regeneration layer is Quercus mongolica (54%), followed by Betula platyphylla. (2)The richness index and diversity index were in an order of herb layer >arbor layer > shrub layer> regeneration layer, while their evenness was peaked in shrub layer.(3)The average tree height of the arbor layer was 13.2m, the average diameter at breast height was 14.3cm, the average branch height was 7.5m, the average canopy density was 0.73(73% of the overhead sky was occupied by canopy), and the average tree density was 1500 trees/ha. Shrub height averaged at 1.1 m, ground diameter averaged at 1.1 cm, the shrub coverage averaged at 23.2%, and shrub density averaged at 1.3 plants/m2.The average height of herb layer was 37.6 cm and their coverage was 54.4%.The average height of regeneration trees was 1.83 m, the average ground diameter was 1.20 cm, and the average seedling density was 0.17 plants/m2.(4)Redundancy analysis and variation partitioning showed that the individual size (rather than community features), and arbor layer characteristics(rather than shrub and herb layer) contributed the most to the plant diversity variation observed in this study. Of all the tested parameters, Tree height and seedling density in regeneration layer gave the most significant explaining power for the plant diversity variations. The forests in Daxing"anling Mts have been fully included in the Natural Forest Protection Program (NFPP,completely inhibit timber harvest since 1999). The above-mentioned data from National Nature Reserve, as a local background data, clearly showed that the forests in this region are still in their young stage and long-term protection are necessary. These data will provide supports for further National Reserve-policy decision and implementation of NFPP in NE China.

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张喜亭,张建宇,肖路,陈胜仙,仲召亮,高薇,王文杰.大兴安岭多布库尔保护区乔、灌、草及更新层植物多样性、群落结构特征及其耦合关系研究.生态学报,,(). http://dx. doi. org/10.5846/stxb201812212775

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  • 收稿日期:2018-12-21
  • 最后修改日期:2021-07-06
  • 录用日期:2021-06-02
  • 在线发布日期: 2021-08-16
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