Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research,Chinese Academy of Sciences;China;University of Chinese Academy of Sciences;China,Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research,Chinese Academy of Sciences
In recent years, a new round of large-scale reclamation activities, driven by rapid industrialization and urbanization, has been carried out in the coastal areas of China. Bohai Sea, with a long history of extensive reclamation, has become the area with the most intensive reclamation activities in recent years. Owing to sea reclamation and estuarine delta growth, the area of Bohai Sea has shrunk by 0.57×104km2 since the 1940s, with shrinking rates of > 82km2/a and as high as 141km2/a since 2000. The natural coastline of Bohai Sea decreased sharply from 1397km in 1990 to 561km in 2014, and its proportion decreased from 54.92% to 16.18%. Large-scale reclamation might cause several hazards and decline of ecological functions, as well as ocean hydrodynamic changes, near-and off-shore topographical and morphological changes, coastal water and sediment pollution, tidal wetland damage, benthic habitat and community destruction, spawning and nursery ground degradation, natural disaster and social system risk aggravation in coastal areas, and declines in industry and economic development. Based on the analysis of the status quo and the problems of the management and policies for sea reclamation in China, the following policies were suggested:to reform and optimize the management system of the reclamation activities, to establish a land-sea coordination mechanism, to improve laws and regulations, to strictly execute the ecological red line system, to control the scale and speed of reclamation, to promote the construction of reserve area, to restore and reconstruct the ecological environment in the reclamation area, to strengthen the supervision and intensive use of the new land resources, to construct basic observation systems, to promote scientific research, and to promote the participation of the general public, stakeholders, and non-governmental organizations in conservation activities.