全球环境变化对典型生态系统的影响研究:现状、挑战与发展趋势
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湿润亚热带山地生态国家重点实验室培育基地

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国家重大基础研究计划课题(2014CB954003);国家自然科学基金重点项目(31130013)


The impacts of global environmental changes on typical ecosystems: status, challenges and trends
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State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Humid Subtropical Mountain Ecology

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    摘要:

    随着全球环境变化和人类活动对生态系统影响的日益加深,生态系统结构和功能发生强烈变化,生态系统提供各类资源和服务的能力在显著下降。在这种背景下,全面认识生态系统的结构功能与全球环境变化的关系已成为当前生态学研究的热点之一。本文综述了全球环境变化对典型生态系统(包括森林生态系统、河口湿地生态系统、城市生态系统)影响以及全球环境变化适应的研究现状,分析研究面临的困难及挑战。在此基础上,提出对未来研究发展趋势的展望。在森林生态系统与全球环境变化研究上,未来应重视能更好模拟现实情景的、多因子、长期的全球环境变化控制试验,并注重不同生物地球化学循环之间的耦合作用。在湿地生态系统与全球环境变化研究上,未来应加强氮沉降、硫沉降及盐水入侵对湿地生态系统碳氮循环的影响,明晰滨海湿地的蓝碳功能,加强极端气候和人类干扰影响下湿地生态系统结构和功能变化及恢复力的研究。在城市生态系统与全球环境变化研究上,未来应深化城市生物地球化学循环机制研究,实现城市生态系统的人本需求侧重与转向,并开展典型地区长期、多要素综合响应研究。在全球环境变化适应研究上,未来应构架定量化、跨尺度的适应性评价体系,加强典型区域/部门的适应性研究以及适应策略实施的可行性研究,注重适应与减缓对策的关联研究及实施的风险评估。期望本综述为我国生态系统与全球环境变化研究提供一些参考。

    Abstract:

    With the increasing impacts of global environmental changes and human activities on ecosystems, structures and functions of ecosystem change greatly, and their capacities in providing all kinds of services and resources are deteriorating. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the relationships between structures and functions of ecosystems and global environmental changes has become the research focus in ecology. This paper reviews the impacts of global environmental changes on typical ecosystems (including forest ecosystem, estuary wetland ecosystem and city ecosystem) and the adaptation to the global change, analyzes the difficulties and challenges facing ahead, and based on this puts forward the prospects for future researches. For the study of the relationships between forest ecosystems and global environmental changes, the future research will pay attention to long-term global environmental change experiments with controlled multi-factors and better simulated reality, and the coupling function between different biogeochemical cycles. For the study on the relationships between wetland ecosystems and global environmental changes, we will focus on the impacts of nitrogen deposition, sulfur deposition and salt water intrusion on carbon and nitrogen cycles in wetland ecosystem, clarify blue carbon function of coastal wetland, and learn more about the changes in structure and function of wetland ecosystems and their resilience under the influences of the extreme climate and human disturbance. For the study on the relationships between urban ecosystems and global environmental changes, we will deepen the understanding of the mechanisms of urban biogeochemical cycles,attach importance to humanistic demand in urban ecosystem and carry out long-term, multi-factor responsive researches in typical region. For the study on the adaptation to global environmental changes, a quantified and trans-scale adaptability evaluation system should be established, and we will strengthen the research on the adaptability of typical area/department and feasibility of adaptive strategy, attaching importance to the relationship between adaptive strategy and alleviating strategy, as well as the implementing risks. We hope the review will provide references for the researches on ecosystems and global environmental changes in China.

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杨玉盛.全球环境变化对典型生态系统的影响研究:现状、挑战与发展趋势.生态学报,2017,37(1):1~11

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