化肥和有机肥长期施用对红壤酶活性的影响
作者:
作者单位:

作者简介:

通讯作者:

中图分类号:

基金项目:

国家自然科学基金资助项目(41371263,41301235);江苏高校优势学科建设工程资助项目(PAPD)


Long-term effects of chemical and organic amendments on red soil enzyme activities
Author:
Affiliation:

Fund Project:

  • 摘要
  • |
  • 图/表
  • |
  • 访问统计
  • |
  • 参考文献
  • |
  • 相似文献
  • |
  • 引证文献
  • |
  • 资源附件
  • |
  • 文章评论
    摘要:

    选择长期定位试验中的不施肥对照(CK)、单施化肥(NPK)、单施有机肥(OM)及化肥有机肥配施(NPKM)4种处理,研究了长期化肥和有机肥互作对旱地红壤酶活性的影响及酶活性与土壤理化性质、微生物生物量的关系。结果表明,施肥特别是化肥和有机肥的交互作用能不同程度促进参与碳、氮循环的总体酶活性增加;其中,OM对酶活性的促进作用强于NPK,NPKM的酶活性最高。与CK相比,施用有机肥的处理(即OM和NPKM)会降低参与碳循环酶和参与氮循环酶的比值,而NPK不影响该比值。OM处理的单位微生物量碳酶活性和单位有机碳酶活性均显著低于其他处理,而在NPK处理中这两项指标最高,OM和NPKM处理则提高了单位微生物量氮酶活性。一方面说明有机肥可以缓解土壤微生物的碳限制,但是供氮能力相对不足,而与化肥配施缓解了氮素的限制状况;另一方面暗示有机肥可以提高土壤生物的生态效率。总之,化肥和有机肥配施能够在碳氮资源的生物有效性上形成互补关系,能够同时促进土壤生物和作物生长,从而满足土壤生态系统服务功能持续发挥的需要。

    Abstract:

    Red soil degradation has become a serious ecological and environmental problem due to irrational utilization.In recent years in particular,with intensive agricultural management targeting higher crop yields,overuse of chemical fertilizers has exacerbated the degradation of red soil.Organic amendment could not only reduce the dosage of chemical fertilizer used but also could improve overall soil quality,including soil physicochemical and microbiological properties that are relevant to soil ecosystem service maintenance and development.Soil enzyme activity is considered to be a valuable soil quality indicator with regard to its relevance to soil functioning and its sensitivity to soil perturbation.Numerous studies have investigated the impacts of fertilization management on soil enzyme activities,mainly focusing on the assessment of enzyme activity responses to different fertilizations however,little attention has been paid to additional information on ecophysiology and ecological stoichiometry associated with multiple enzymatic activities.In the present study,soil samples were collected from a long-term red soil fertilization experiment established in 1986 in the Jiangxi Institute of Red Soil of Jiangxi Province,and were analyzed to investigate the interactive effects of chemical and organic amendment on soil enzyme activity,soil physicochemical properties,and microbial biomass.In particular,the relationship among soil enzyme activity,soil physicochemical properties,and microbial biomass was explored.Four treatments,i.e.,no-fertilizer control (CK),only chemical fertilizer containing nitrogen,phosphorus,and potassium (NPK);only organic amendment (OM);and a combination of organic amendment and chemical fertilizer (NPKM),were selected for use in this study.The results showed that,compared with the CK,long-term fertilization practice (NPK,OM,and NPKM) could promote the activities of soil enzymes involved in carbon cycling (i.e.,α-and β-glucosidase,cellulase and xylanase) and nitrogen cycling (i.e.,leucine aminopeptidase and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase) to different extents.Among all the treatments,NPKM promoted overall enzyme activity the most,whereas NPK had the least affect.Organic amendment (i.e.,OM and NPKM) decreased the C:N acquisition ratio in comparison with CK,but there was no significant difference between NPK and CK treatments,indicating that organic amendment decreased the proportion of C-acquiring enzymes but increased N-acquiring enzymes.Microbial biomass carbon-specific enzyme activities (MBCE) or soil organic carbon-specific enzyme activities (SOCE) under the OM treatment was significantly lower than in the other three treatments.For example,compared to CK,MBCE was decreased by 56.2% and SOCE by 21.2% in the OM treatment,but these were increased by 7% and 16.9%,respectively,in the NPK treatment.Such results indicate that soil microorganisms obtained relatively more energy in the OM treatment and that the utilization efficiency of organic carbon was higher in this treatment than in the NPK treatment.Similarly,microbial biomass nitrogen-specific enzyme activities (MBNE) increased by 45% in the NPKM treatment compared to that in the CK,but no significant difference was observed between OM and NPK.The results suggest that low C:N acquisition ratio and high MBNE are indicators of N limitation in OM treatment,and organic amendment combined with chemical fertilization could alleviate N limitation.In conclusion,the soil microbial community is mainly limited by C in NPK,whereas it is mainly restricted by N in the OM treatment.Furthermore,NPKM treatment could simultaneously supply organic carbon and nitrogen,satisfying the demands of plant growth and producing a favorable environment for microbial growth.Integrating organic amendment and chemical fertilizer would facilitate sustainable development of soil ecosystem services.

    参考文献
    相似文献
    引证文献
引用本文

田善义,王明伟,成艳红,陈小云,李大明,胡锋,刘满强.化肥和有机肥长期施用对红壤酶活性的影响.生态学报,2017,37(15):4963~4972

复制
分享
文章指标
  • 点击次数:
  • 下载次数:
  • HTML阅读次数:
  • 引用次数:
历史
  • 收稿日期:2016-04-27
  • 最后修改日期:
  • 录用日期:
  • 在线发布日期: 2017-08-15
  • 出版日期:

重要信息

●  深切缅怀《生态学报》副主编赵景柱先生
●  脆弱生态系统保护与修复”专刊征稿通知
●  生态文明贵阳国际论坛“专辑征稿通知
●  全球变化与可持续生态学“专辑征稿通知
●  天然林保护修复”专栏征稿通知
●  城市生态调查评估与生态管理”专刊征稿通知