典型喀斯特石漠化生态系统土壤有机碳时空分布格局及其与环境的相关性
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贵州师范大学喀斯特研究院,贵州师范大学喀斯特研究院,贵州师范大学喀斯特研究院

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贵州省社会发展攻关计划课题(黔科合SZ字[2014]3036号);国家水利部公益性行业科研专项经费项目(201401050);贵州省水利科技经费项目(KT201409);贵州师范大学博士科研启动基金(202)


Distribution of soil organic carbon related to environmental factors in typical rocky desertification ecosystems
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Institute of South China Karst,Guizhou Normal University

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    摘要:

    选取中国西南3个典型喀斯特石漠化生态系统(贵州毕节鸭池高原山地石漠化区、贵阳红枫湖高原盆地石漠化区和关岭花江高原峡谷石漠化区)为研究区,广泛建立野外样地,开展石漠化生态系统土壤有机碳分布及其与石漠化等级、地形地貌、植被、土壤性质等环境因子的相关性研究。结果表明:1)喀斯特石漠化生态系统土壤有机碳含量较低,毕节鸭池、贵阳红枫湖和关岭花江3个石漠化生态系统平均值分别为23.42、25.78、26.03 g/kg,且3个不同地貌类型石漠化土壤有机碳含量无明显差异。2)土地覆被变化明显影响了土壤有机碳含量,原生森林土壤有机碳平均含量31.32 g/kg,是所有类型中最高的。随着土地覆被由原生森林至石旮旯地退化不断增加的过程,土壤有机碳含量显示先降低后增加的变化趋势。3)土壤有机碳与土壤特性有明显的相关性,与土壤总氮、水解氮、速效钾、总孔隙度、自然含水量、毛管持水量、田间持水量和上层渗透性存在极显著地正相关,与总磷、下层渗透性存在显著地正相关,与容重存在极显著地负相关。4)植物多样性的丰富度指数(R)和多样性指数(H)与土壤有机碳含量有明显的相关性,达到了极显著的水平。5)不同石漠化等级土壤有机碳含量有显著差异,随着石漠化干扰程度的递增,土壤有机碳含量显示了先减小后增加的趋势。研究结果对中国西南喀斯特森林生态保护、石漠化生态系统恢复重建以及应对全球气候变化碳循环的减源增汇具有重要的理论意义和实践指导价值。

    Abstract:

    Karst rocky desertification is an important ecological issue hindering the socioeconomic development of the South China Karst region. In the present study, firstly, three typical rocky desertification regions-Bijie Yachi, Qingzhen Hongfenghu, and Guanling Huajiang, Guizhou Province, representing three different typical karst landforms-plateau mountain, plateau basin, and plateau gorge, respectively, were selected as experimental areas. Then, 90 sample plots with an area of 20 m×20 m each were established. The distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) in relation to environmental factors (degree of rocky desertification, landform, vegetation, soil property, etc.) in these plots was determined using field measurements, laboratory detection, and mathematical statistics. The following results were obtained:1) The SOC content of karst rocky desertification ecosystems was low. The average content of the three experimental areas of Bijie Yachi (Plateau Mountain), Qingzhen Hongfenghu (Plateau Basin), and Guanling Huajiang (Plateau Gorge) was 23.42, 25.78, 26.03 g/kg, respectively. There was no significant (P=0.23) difference of SOC contents among the three different landform experimental areas. 2) Land cover change can affect the SOC content. The SOC content of virgin forest (31.32 g/kg) was the highest. With increased soil degeneration from virgin forest to gravel land, the SOC content first decreased and then increased. 3) The SOC content was correlated with soil physico-chemical properties. Specifically, the SOC content was extremely significantly positively correlated with total nitrogen content, hydrolyzed nitrogen content, available potassium content, total porosity, total phosphorus content, natural moisture capacity, field moisture capacity, capillary moisture capacity, and upper strata saturated permeability; significantly positively correlated with total phosphorus content and lower strata saturated permeability, and extremely significantly negatively correlated with soil bulk density. 4) The SOC content and plant diversity rich (R) and diversity (H) indices were extremely positively correlated. 5) There were significant differences of SOC contents between different degrees of rocky desertification. Along with increased degrees of rocky desertification, the SOC content initially decreased and then increased. Based on these results, the distribution pattern of the SOC content and its impact factors in karst rocky desertification ecosystems was clarified. These results have important implications for the protection of karst forest ecosystems, the reconstruction of rocky desertification ecosystems, and the response to global climate change.

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王霖娇,李瑞,盛茂银.典型喀斯特石漠化生态系统土壤有机碳时空分布格局及其与环境的相关性.生态学报,2017,37(5):1367~1378

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