鄱阳湖湿地优势植物叶片-凋落物-土壤碳氮磷化学计量特征
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江西师范大学,江西师范大学,江西师范大学科学技术学院,江西师范大学,江西师范大学

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国家自然科学基金(31460129, 31270522); 鄱阳湖湿地与流域研究教育部重点实验室开放基金(PK2013001); 江西省研究生创新基金资助(YC2013-S076)


Leaf litter and soil carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus stoichiometry of dominant plant species in the Poyang Lake wetland
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Jiangxi Normal University,Nanchang,Jiangxi Normal University,Nanchang,Science and technology college,Jiangxi Normal University,Nanchang,Jiangxi Normal University,Nanchang,Jiangxi Normal University,Nanchang

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    摘要:

    2013年11月初在鄱阳湖南矶湿地国家级自然保护区,采集芦苇(Phragmites australis)、南荻(Triarrhena lutarioriparia)、菰(Zizania latifolia(Griseb.))、灰化苔草(Carex cinerascens)、红穗苔草(Carex argyi)和水蓼(Polygonum hydropiper)等6种优势植物新鲜叶片、凋落物及表层0-15cm土壤样品测定了碳(C)、氮(N)、磷(P)含量,以阐明不同物种、不同生活型间C、N、P化学计量差异,探讨化学计量垂直分异。结果表明:1)C、N、P含量变化范围分别为:叶片380.6-432.2 mg/g,15.3-32.6 mg/g和1.3-2.0 mg/g;凋落物345.4-416.1 mg/g,10.8-20.8 mg/g和1.1-1.7 mg/g;土壤15.0-38.1 mg/g,1.2-3.1 mg/g 和0.7-1.1mg/g,不同物种间叶片、凋落物及土壤C、N、P含量差异显著,且叶片C、N、P含量显著高于凋落物与土壤。2)土壤C:N、C:P及N:P值显著低于叶片与凋落物,且土壤C、N、P化学计量关系与凋落物更为密切,凋落物的C:N、N:P分别能解释土壤C:N、N:P变异的35%、18%。3)挺水植物与湿生植物之间叶片C:N、N:P值差异显著,C:P则差异不显著,凋落物C:N、C:P与N:P均未达到显著性差异。

    Abstract:

    Carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) stoichiometry are critical indicators of biogeochemical coupling in ecosystems, and stoichiometric homoeostasis plays an important role in modulating the structure, function, and stability of ecosystems. Stoichiometry studies have been carried out in various terrestrial ecosystems in China, but little data is available for wetlands. Previous studies have largely focused on plant leaves. It is also important to assess the entire plant-soil system stoichiometry, rather than just plant tissues. Wetland plants live in a fluctuating environment, more so than terrestrial plants, and the responses of wetland ecosystems to climate change are more sensitive than terrestrial ecosystem. The C:N:P stoichiometry in wetlands and terrestrial ecosystems may differ. Thus, more research is needed on carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus concentrations, as well as their stoichiometry in wetland ecosystems. Poyang Lake is the largest freshwater lake in China, with huge wetlands appearing during the drawdown periods each year. In this study, six dominant plant species, including Phragmites australi, Triarrhena lutarioriparia, Zizania latifolia (Griseb.) Stapf, Carex cinerascens, Carex argyi, and Polygonum hydropiper, were selected in the national nature reserve of the Nanji Wetlands of Poyang Lake. Fresh leaves, current year litter, and top layer soils were sampled and analyzed for carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus. The objectives of this study were as follows:1) to clarify the difference between the carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus concentrations of dominant plants, as well as their stoichiometric ratios; and 2) to discuss the vertical variability of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus stoichiometry among leaves, litter, and soils. Our results showed that carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus ranged from 380.6 to 432.2, 15.3 to 32.6, and 1.3 to 2.0 mg/g in plant leaves, 345.4 to 416.1, 10.8 to 20.8, and 1.1 to 1.7 mg/g in litters, and 15.0 to 38.1, 1.2 to 3.1, and 0.7 to 1.1 mg/g in top soils, respectively. The elemental concentrations varied significantly with plant species and among leaves, litters, and top soils. Leaves had significantly higher levels of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus concentrations than litters and soil. Moreover, C:N, C:P, and N:P stoichiometry largely differed among plant leaves, litters, and soils, showing a clear vertical variation pattern; soil had the minimum ratios of C:N, C:P, and N:P. Soil C:N, C:P, and N:P stoichiometry was closer to that of litters, rather than plant leaves. Changes in the C:N ratio of litters could explain 35% of soil C:N ratio variability, whereas 18% of soil N:P ratio variability could be explained by litter N:P. In addition, a significant difference was found between emergent and hygromorphic plants for leaf N:P and C:N ratios, but not for leaf C:P ratio. In contrast, litter C:N, C:P, and N:P did not differ significantly between emergent and hygromorphic plants. Given the relatively low C:N and C:P ratio of plant litters, Poyang Lake wetlands may experience fast litter decomposition and turnover rates, leading to relative low carbon storage.

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聂兰琴,吴琴,尧波,付姗,胡启武.鄱阳湖湿地优势植物叶片-凋落物-土壤碳氮磷化学计量特征.生态学报,2016,36(7):1898~1906

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