莱州湾中国对虾生长特性及其空间分布
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山东省海洋资源与环境研究院,山东省海洋资源与环境研究院,山东省海洋资源与环境研究院

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山东省渔业资源增殖效果评价(SD2012-2014); 莱州湾中国对虾资源增殖管理优化控制模拟研究(ZR2013DQ016); 水生动物营养与饲料'泰山学者'岗位 (TS200651036)经费


The growth characteristics and spatial distribution of Fenneropenaeus chinensis in Laizhou Bay
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Shandong Marine and Fishery Research Institute,Shandong Marine and Fishery Research Institute,Shandong Marine and Fishery Research Institute

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    摘要:

    根据2010年5月-10月调查资料,对山东莱州湾中国对虾(Fenneropenaeus chinensis)的资源状况、生长特性及其空间分布进行了研究。莱州湾放流前本底调查资料表明,目前山东莱州湾中国对虾捕捞产量主要来源于增殖放流,且在一定条件下捕捞产量与放流数量成正相关关系。依据2010年中国对虾生物学数据,应用R语言命令对中国对虾体长体重关系和体长生长方程进行了拟合,并对拟合系数进行了显著性检验,结果表明中国对虾体长与体重系数a、b处于显著水平(P < 0.05),中国对虾体长生长方程拟合系数Kt0L处于极显著水平(P < 0.001),故拟合效果明显,获得为中国对虾生长参数雌虾为K=0.0226、t0=37.45d、L=200.77 mm、W=80.50 g、tr=85.18d(8月4日),雄虾为:K=0.0419、t0=40.25d、L=145.81 mm、W=23.37 g、tr=67.24d(7月18日),与20世纪80年代相比,中国对虾个体明显减小,生长速度加快,生长拐点提前了1个月。另外,根据大面调查体长数据,对各个站位体长组出现频率进行Ward聚类分析,利用R语言聚类树的融合水平值定义划分水平,选择具有最大跳跃的分组水平,将中国对虾虾群大致可分为两个组群,河口组和深水组,同时按照各体长组的多度值大小,探讨了各组内具有代表性的分类体长组,结果表明,河口组的中国对虾以体长125-135 mm为主,深水组以体长115-125 mm和105-115 mm为主,河口组个体明显大于深水组;河口组分布区入海河流较多,饵料生物丰富,以软泥底质为主,有利于中国对虾的摄食和前期保护,深水组分布于莱州湾中东部,蟹类资源相对较高,且以沙质底质为主,对中国对虾的生长与保护产生一定的影响。

    Abstract:

    We conducted bottom surveys in Laizhou Bay between May and October 2010 and determined the catch rates, growth characteristics, and spatial patterns of Fenneropenaeus chinensis. We found that the catch rates of F. chinensis had mainly improved because of stock enhancement, and these rates were occasionally positively correlated with the number of individuals released. The data obtained were used to generate length-weight relationship curves and body-length growth curves; these curves were fitted using R (version 3.0.2), and the significance of the fitted factors was tested. The factors a and b of the equation used to calculate the length-weight relationships were significant at P < 0.05), and the factors K, t0, and L of the von Bertalanffy growth equation were significant at P < 0.001). The growth parameters of F. chinensis caught on August 4 and July 18, 2010, were as follows:♀:K= 0.0226, t0 = 37.45 d, L= 200.77 mm, W = 80.50 g, and tr = 85.18 d; ♂:K = 0.0419, t0 = 40.25 d, L = 145.81 mm, W = 23.37g, and tr = 67.24 d, respectively. These findings suggest that, compared with the individuals caught in the 1980s, those in the present study were remarkably smaller, showed accelerated growth, and the turning point for the growth curve had advanced by about a month. In addition, the data for body length collected during a large-scale survey at 32 stations were analyzed using hierarchical clustering. Analysis of the results of clustering using R language with the highest likelihood suggest the existence of two assemblages of F. chinensis in the surveyed waters:the estuarine group and the deep-water group. The F. chinensis communities were analyzed according to their body length. The abundance value of representative method showed that the estuarine group mainly consisted of individuals having a length of 125-135 mm, whereas the deep-water group included individuals having lengths of 115-125 mm and 105-115 mm. This suggests that individuals of the estuarine group were bigger than those of the deep-water group. The estuarine group was mainly found in rivers that have abundant food sources, and the bottom material was mainly composed of organic ooze, which provided protection to F. chinensis. In contrast, the deep-water group was located in the middle-east region of Laizhou Bay, which has rich crab resources, and the bottom material was mainly composed of sand. These factors influenced the growth and protection of F. Chinensis in deep waters.

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徐炳庆,吕振波,李战军,李凡,于宁,魏振华.莱州湾中国对虾生长特性及其空间分布.生态学报,2016,36(3):803~810

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