中国自然保护综合地理区划
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北京林业大学自然保护区学院,北京林业大学自然保护区学院

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林业公益性行业科研专项(201104029)


The comprehensive geographical regionalization of China supporting natural conservation
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College of Nature Conservation,Beijing Forestry University,College of Nature Conservation,Beijing Forestry University

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    摘要:

    综合自然地理区划可以为生物多样性保护和自然保护区体系建设等提供基础资料,为区域生物多样性政策的制定提供科学依据。随着我国自然保护区事业的不断发展,自然保护综合地理区划成为自然地理区划的重要研究内容之一。虽然我国自然保护区体系已经初步建立,但仍然没有一个同时依据生物因素和非生物因素分布规律,确定的自然保护综合地理区划方案,为生物多样性保护和自然保护区建设服务。利用GIS技术和PC-ORD4.0软件中的双向指示种分析(TWINSPAN)方法,将中国版图划分出3489个基本地理单元,并对这些地理单元进行了数量化分类。然后,根据这个分类结果,参考植被区划和地貌区划等,提出了中国自然保护综合地理区划方案。中国自然保护综合地理区划方案包括了8个自然保护地理大区、37个自然保护地理地区和117个自然保护地理亚地区。该区划具有以下特点:(1)利用TWINSPAN的数量分类方法进行地理区划的探索是区划方法上的创新,为自然地理区划的研究提供了新的研究途径。(2)选取的数量化指标是在结合已有专项区划资料提出的,有助于避免动植物分布指标的人为选择偏差,可以综合反映区域自然地理特征,对生物多样性就地保护和自然保护区体系建设具有较好的指导作用。(3)量化分析保证了地理区划的客观性,同时定性分析避免了量化分析过程中的误差,使区划结果更准确。

    Abstract:

    National-or regional-scale comprehensive geographical regionalization, including the designation of biogeographical regions, can provide foundational data designed to enhance the conservation of biodiversity and the construction of a nature reserve system and so provide a scientific basis for the establishment of policies related to local biodiversity. The comprehensive geographical regionalization supporting natural conservation has become an important aspect of the field of natural geographical regionalization with the development of nature reserves. Meanwhile, China's nature reserve system has been preliminarily established and is developing rapidly. However, no national geographical regionalization system is in place that designates biogeographical regions, considers both biotic factors (such as plant, animal, or vegetation) and abiotic factors (such as climate, soil, or landform), and is also designed to provide a basis for biodiversity conservation and the establishment of nature reserves. This study uses a geographic information system (GIS) to first divide the territory of China into 3489 basic geographical units based regional climate, soil and geomorphology. A regionalization of various aspects of biogeography such as climate, soil, flora, animal distribution, and vegetation was conducted for this study. Then, the spatial information used to create biogeographical regions was compiled and converted into attribute information that could be used to analyze the differences between all the basic geographical units using GIS10.0. Next, the entire set of data supporting these geographical units was studied using TWINSPAN and PC-ORD4.0. Finally, a natural conservation comprehensive geographical regionalization scheme designed to conserve and preserve natural resources was proposed based on the classification results; data from the vegetation regionalization and geomorphologic regionalization were included. Data analysis included quantitative and qualitative analysis during the course of the study. This comprehensive geographical regionalization system resulted in the designation of three major types of natural conservation biogeographical areas, including eight zones, 37 areas, and 117 subareas. A comprehensive geographical regionalization should consider an ideal combination of various elements of the landscape including soil, landform, climate, plants, animals and vegetation to support comprehensive natural area conservation, based on the zonal distribution of various ecological factors and eliminating the interference of intrazonal characteristics. Certainly, the boundaries of a comprehensive geographical regionalization system cannot be determined by the boundary of a single aspect of biogeography, and the biogeographical regions created here will be very different from other previous classification systems because this research integrates the expression of a wide variety of ecological factors in geographical space to consider the needs of biodiversity conservation and provides baseline information in support of the establishment of nature reserves. The features of the comprehensive geographical regionalization system include: (1) A geographical regionalization method that was based on the numerical taxonomic methods of TWINSPAN and GIS, used innovative technology and methods, and provides a new approach for research related to geographical regionalization; (2) Quantitative criteria that are proposed in combination with the existing special regionalization in this study; these criteria helped researchers avoid artifacts in the data that were based solely on one aspect of the data such as unique characteristics of the animal and plant indices, resulting in poor selection of biogeographically-based polygons; additionally, the quantitative criteria can comprehensively reflect natural ecological characteristics in a particular district and can provide good direction to land managers concerned with biodiversity conservation and nature reserve construction; (3) Quantitative analysis was used to ensure that the geographical regionalization system was constructed objectively, while qualitative analysis was used to avoid obvious errors and to improve the accuracy of the classification.

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郭子良,崔国发.中国自然保护综合地理区划.生态学报,2014,34(5):1284~1294

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  • 收稿日期:2013-06-10
  • 最后修改日期:2013-09-22
  • 录用日期:2013-09-22
  • 在线发布日期: 2014-03-20
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