Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research,Chinese Academy of Sciences;China;University of Chinese Academy of Sciences;China,Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research,Chinese Academy of Sciences
Over the past three decades, China's gradual transition toward an urbanization-oriented development strategy has generated a spectacular urbanization development with an average annual growth rate at 0.93%. Although, China achieved a great success in urbanization process, many serious challenges appeared at the same time, such as, population explosion, resources scarcity, and eco-environmental deterioration. Accordingly, China's rapid urbanization has been characterized by high-speed economic growth and a series of environmental issues. As it is widely known that there exists an extremely complex interactive coupling and coercing relationship between urbanization and eco-environment, which indicates that urbanization has a strong coercing effect on eco-environment, and eco-environment has a lagged constraint force on urbanization. How to realize the coordinated development of urbanization and eco-environment is not only the key issue in the world economic and social development, but also a hot topic in domestic research in recent years. To start with, this paper establishes a comprehensive index system for assessment of the level of urbanization based on four aspects (population urbanization, spatial urbanization, social urbanization and economic urbanization) and eco-environment based on four aspects (resource factor, eco-environment endowment, eco-environment pressure and eco-environment response). Furthermore, each indictor in the compound system is weighted with subjective and objective weight determination methods: the methods of AHP, entropy and multi-objective decision-making power coefficient. Finally, a coupling coordination degree model focusing on the coupling processes and evolution trends of the compound system of urbanization and eco-environment is established, based on the physical model from 1980 to 2011 in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. The results show that: (1) population urbanization and the eco-environmental pressure make the greatest contribution to the urbanization subsystem and the eco-environmental subsystem respectively, indicating that they are the significant factors when adjusting the compound coupling coordination system during decision-making; (2) in the coupling coordination degree model, the three different subsets of contributions of the urbanization subsystem and the eco-environmental subsystem make no differences to the coupling coordination degree between urbanization and eco-environment system, which indicates that the two parameters have less effect on the coupling coordination system; (3) the coupling coordination degree between urbanization and eco-environment shows an S-shaped curve, and both subsystems evolve from the seriously unbalanced development with urbanization hindered into superiorly balanced development with environment lagged; (4) we argue that it is important to recognize the spatial-temporal dynamic coupling law of interactive coercing between urbanization and eco-environment. It is of great significance to take appropriate urbanization development modes to realize sustainable development between urbanization and eco-environment in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Furthermore, the results of this study also offer a scientific decision-making for achieving the goal of eco-environment protection and promoting the healthy urbanization in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region.