安徽新安江干流滩涂湿地草本植物区系及物种多样性
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安徽师范大学环境科学与工程学院,安徽师范大学生命科学学院,安徽师范大学环境科学与工程学院

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安徽省自然科学基金资助(1208085MD60)


The flora and species diversity of herbaceous seed plants in wetlands along the Xin'anjiang River from Anhui
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College of Environmental Science and Engineering,Anhui Normal University,College of Life Sciences,Anhui Normal University,College of Environmental Science and Engineering,Anhui Normal University

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    摘要:

    以新安江干流(安徽段)滩涂湿地草本植物群落为研究对象,探讨其区系组成及不同江段物种多样性的变化规律。结果表明:(1)该区共有草本被子植物48科、131属、194种(含种下分类单位);以禾本科(Gramineae)、莎草科(Cyperaceae)、菊科(Compositae)和蓼科(Polygonaceae)为优势科;以蓼属(Polygonum)、莎草属(Cyperus)、大戟属(Euphorbia)和蒿属(Artemisia)等为优势属,属的组成相对较为分散,寡种属和单种属占总属数的97.7%;(2)从分布区类型看,科以世界分布占明显优势(43.8%);属的分布区类型以泛热带分布最多(30.5%),其次是世界分布(26.0%),总体上热带成分略多于温带成分(57/40);表明该区草本植物区系地理成分较为复杂,分布区类型多样,具有热带、亚热带与暖温带的多重性质,但以亚热带性质为主;(3)各滩涂湿地植物群落的建群种、优势种及伴生种的种类等组成特征均存在一定差异,狗牙根(Cynodon dactylon)、双穗雀稗(Paspalum distichum)和假俭草(Eremochloa ophiuroides)等为滩涂湿地的主要优势种;江段干流不同流域滩涂湿地草本植物群落的α多样性的变化格局与丰富度指数的变化格局比较一致,总体上呈现逐渐减小的趋势,表现为上游>中游>下游;与之相反,植物群落的β多样性——相异性系数和Cody指数总体上呈现上升的格局。这种多样性格局的成因需要进一步分析和探讨。

    Abstract:

    As the primary producers in the wetland, one of the most important ecological landscapes with high biodiversity, wetland plants have an important influence on the survival and development of the wetland ecosystem. The plant diversity in the beach wetland was researched extensively in previous studies. However, the diversity of vegetation in the beach wetlands along the Xin'anjiang River in Anhui province was still unclear. For protection and rational utilization of the vegetation in this area, the flora of herbaceous plants in the beach wetlands was analyzed and the species diversity of them was investigated in this paper. The results showed that: (1) The herbaceous plant composition was relatively rich and the total 194 species belonged to 48 families and 131 genera, with Gramineae, Cyperaceae, Compositae and Polygonaceae being dominant families. For all the detective plants, 37 families, 88 genera, 129 species belonged to Dicotyledoneae and 11 families, 43 genera, 65 species belonged to Monocotyledoneae. The preponderant genera were Polygonum, Cyperu, Euphorbia and Artemisia. The percentage of the genera including only 1 species or 2-5 species was accounted for 97.7%. (2) At family level, the proportion of the cosmopolitan type was bigger than others and reached 43.8%. At genus level, the pantropic type was 30.5% and the cosmopolitan type was 26.0%. The tropic elements were more than the temperate ones (57/40). The floristic geographical components including the tropic, subtropic and temperate characteristics were multiform and the areal-type was various. (3) There were visible changes in the community composite, including the constructive species and dominant species, companion species and their dominance. The dominant species were Cynodon dactylon, Paspalum distichum, Eremochloa ophiuroides, Zoysia japonica, Polygonum hydropiper, Cyperus iria, Leersia japonica, and Alternanthera philoxeroides in the wetlands. Especially Cynodon dactylon and Paspalum distichum were the constructive species and played a very important role in the herb community. However, their important values changed among different sampled plots. Alpha diversity had a similar fashion compared with species richness with the order being upstream > midstream > downstream. In contrast, β diversity gradually increased with the order being upstream < midstream < downstream. The specific reasons should deserve deep researches. We put forward some strategies of protection and restoration towards the main problems in biodiversity conservation in the wetlands along the Xin'anjiang River.

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杨文斌,刘坤,周守标.安徽新安江干流滩涂湿地草本植物区系及物种多样性.生态学报,2013,33(5):1433~1442

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