滇西北高原纳帕海湿地湖滨带优势植物生物量及其凋落物分解
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西南林业大学环境科学与工程学院,国家高原湿地研究中心/西南林业大学,国家高原湿地研究中心/西南林业大学

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云南省应用基础研究计划(2011FB069); 国家自然科学基金 (U0933601, 40971285, 41171074); 云南省社会事业发展专项(2010CA010); 云南省科技创新人才计划(2012HC007); 973计划前期研究专项(2012CB426509)


Biomass production and litter decomposition of lakeshore plants in Napahai wetland, Northwestern Yunnan Plateau, China
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School of Environmental Science and Engineering Southwest Forestry University,National Plateau Wetlands Research Center/ Southwest Forestry University,National Plateau Wetlands Research Center/Southwest Forestry University

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    摘要:

    选取滇西北高原湿地纳帕海湖滨带优势植物茭草(Zizania caducifolia)、水葱(Scirpus tabernaemontani)和刘氏荸荠(Heleocharis liouana),研究其生物量及其凋落物分解特征,结果表明:水葱、茭草、刘氏荸荠为纳帕海湿地湖滨带单优植物群落,均具有较高的地上生物量,不同植物群落地上生物量不同,其中,茭草地上生物量(853.6±58.2)g·m-2·a-1显著高于水葱(730.7±7.8)g·m-2·a-1与刘氏荸荠(338.9±32.6) g·m-2·a-1的地上生物量。3种植物群落凋落物分解速率不同、并随月平均气温升高均呈增加的趋势,其中,刘氏荸荠分解速率k值最大(0.067±0.0026)、茭草(0.062±0.0072)其次、水葱最小(0.039±0.0062)。凋落物经过1年的分解,水葱、茭草和刘氏荸荠凋落物存留率分别为(62.0±8.8)%、(47.5±9.0)%和(44.5±7.9)%。综合3种湖滨带植物地上生物量与凋落物年分解,水葱地上生物量年存留量(453.1±4.9) g·m-2·a-1显著高于茭草(405.4±27.7) g·m-2·a-1和刘氏荸荠(150.9±14.5) g·m-2·a-1。研究进一步表明滇西北高原湿地湖滨带植物具有极高的生物量存留率,成为该类型湿地生态系统碳汇功能的基础,其碳汇过程及其贡献率需要进一步深入研究。

    Abstract:

    Biomass production and litter decomposition of wetland plants are two important phases for carbon cycle of wetland ecosystems and its trade-off is essential for the carbon sink function and carbon sequestration research on wetland ecosystems. Napahai wetland, one of the 12 Ramsar plateau wetlands, is located in the northwest Yunnan plateau. It is a typical wetland with enclosed and semi-enclosed character and its high biodiversity and uniqueness has received considerable concern worldwide. However, there is few studies on its ecological function of regional carbon cycle and greenhouse gas trade-off under a chilly and humid plateau climate. In this paper, three dominant lakeshore plants, Zizania caducifolia, Scirpus tabernaemontani and Heleocharis liouana were selected as target species. For each species their community characteristics and aboveground biomass were measured by field survey and harvesting, and their litter decomposition rate was determined by mesh bag method. The aims of this study were 1) to quantify biomass retention among these species and 2) to gain insights into the carbon cycle process of wetland ecosystems and their roles of different lakeshore plants. The results showed that Zizania caducifolia, Scirpus tabernaemontani, and Heleocharis liouana all formed typical lakeshore monoculture communities with high biomass that varied among species. Aboveground biomass of Zizania caducifolia (853.6±58.2) g·m-2·a-1 was significantly higher than those of Scirpus tabernaemontani (730.7±7.8) g·m-2·a-1, and Heleocharis liouana (338.9±32.6) g·m-2·a-1. In addition of a general trend of increase with rising mean monthly temperatures, their litter decomposition rates differed. The decomposition rate value k of Heleocharis liouana (0.067±0.0026) was the largest, followed by Zizania caducifolia (0.062±0.0072) and Scirpus tabernaemontani (0.039±0.0062). Meanwhile, after one-year decomposition, the litter residual was (62.0±8.8)%, (47.5±9.0)% and (44.5±7.9)% for Scirpus tabernaemontani, Zizania caducifolia and Heleocharis liouana respectively. Further analysis showed that the annual retention of aboveground biomass of Scirpus tabernaemontani (453.1±4.9) g·m-2·a-1 was significantly higher than those of Zizania caducifolia (405.4±27.7) g·m-2·a-1 and Heleocharis liouana (150.9±14.5) g·m-2·a-1. These results indicated that litter decomposition rate of the lakeshore plants were low under the chilly and humid condition of Napahai wetland. Consequently a large amount of biomass of lakeshore plants could be accumulated into the soil in the form of organic matter, which served as a carbon sink function in such ecosystem. This study obtained a primary picture on carbon sink function and carbon sink process in Napahai wetland in the northwestern Yunnan Plateau and further study on plant-specific processes and their roles is needed to reveal the carbon sequestration processes and functions in this region.

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郭绪虎,肖德荣,田昆,余红忠.滇西北高原纳帕海湿地湖滨带优势植物生物量及其凋落物分解.生态学报,2013,33(5):1425~1432

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