基于生态水位约束的下辽河平原地下水生态需水量估算
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辽宁师范大学城市与环境学院,辽宁师范大学城市与环境学院

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国家自然科学基金(40501013); 辽宁省优秀人才项目(LR2010021)


Estimation of ecological water demands based on ecological water table limitations in the lower reaches of the Liaohe River Plain, China
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College of Urban and Environment,Liaoning Normal University,College of Urban and Environment,Liaoning Normal University

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    摘要:

    以我国北方典型的大型地下水盆地——下辽河平原为研究对象,在考虑地下水蒸发特点基础上,统筹考虑对地下水依赖程度较高的天然草地、天然湿地和河流生态系统对于地下水位的要求,综合水文和生态两方面因素确定地下水生态水位;利用Golden surfer软件的体积计算功能,计算出研究区内全年各月的地下水生态需水量;采用正态信息扩散模型,运用月保证率法得到不同保证率、不同恢复等级下的年地下水生态需水量。结果表明:下辽河平原不同月份的地下水缺水量41.83×108-60.07×108 m3、缺水区面积2.05×104-2.34×104 km2、盈余水量2.73×108-6.68×108 m3、盈余区面积0.30×104-0.59×104 km2、地下水生态需水量35.15×108-57.33×108 m3;经月保证率法整合后的年地下水生态需水量变化规律为,随着保证率的降低,地下水生态需水量不断增加,而需水量等级越高,需水量增加幅度越大。

    Abstract:

    Groundwater is an important part of the global ecosystem. It strongly influences ecosystems in arid and semi-arid regions of northwestern China and is the primary source of water for human use in northern China. This paper investigates a typical expansive groundwater basin- the lower reaches of the Liaohe River Plain- as a study area, which continues to experience rapid economic growth along with rapid development of the region’s groundwater resources. The groundwater has been and is being seriously depleted. Some hydrogeological problems in the system are becoming apparent and the area is experiencing significant water shortages. The ecological health of groundwater systems has become a serious issue in ecology and is receiving considerable attention from the general public.
    In consideration of the evaporation characteristics in this area, the requirements needed to maintain a healthy state of the water table for some ecosystems such as natural grasslands, natural wetlands and rivers are demonstrated; then an ecologically appropriate level of the groundwater table was determined based on hydrogeology and ecology. An ecological water table can be defined as the range of water table depths that can maintain a water supply for both human uses and for normal growth of natural vegetation. For example, in natural grassland the appropriate depth of an ecological water table in spring, summer and autumn is 3-4m, 2-3m and 3-4m, respectively; and in winter, the appropriate depth of an ecological water table only needs to meet the needs of the hydrogeological limit. As for natural wetlands, the depth of the ecological water table in spring, summer, autumn and winter is 0.5-0.8m, 0.3-0.5m, 0.5-0.8m and 1.0m, respectively. Based on a comparison of the ecological water table and the actual water table, Golden Surfer software was applied to calculate the ecological water demand for the restoration of the groundwater system on a monthly scale.
    This paper adopts the guarantee rate method to delimit five levels of ecological water demand for the restoration of groundwater systems, which have the guarantee rates of 90%, 80%, 70%, 60% and 50%. Calculating the probability density of ecological water demand using the 12 datasets applied here is impossible using a traditional statistic model, so the information diffusion technique was applied; with this technique, each data point is regarded as a set of data. This technique has been proven to be successful and is widely used. Then, the ecological water demand under different guarantee rates can be obtained. Under each guarantee rate, the ecological water demand can be divided into five grades, which are 100%, 80%, 60%, 40% and 20% of the ecological water demand corresponding to the related guarantee rates. The results show that with a decrease of guarantee rate or an increase of grade, the ecological water demand increased.

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孙才志,高颖,朱正如.基于生态水位约束的下辽河平原地下水生态需水量估算.生态学报,2013,33(5):1513~1523

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