湖北石首麋鹿昼间活动时间分配
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中南林业科技大学野生动植物保护研究所,中南林业科技大学野生动植物保护研究所,湖北石首麋鹿国家级自然保护区管理处,中国科学院动物研究所;中国科学院动物研究所

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国家自然科学基金面上项目(31071946); 教育部高等学校博士点专项科研基金课题(201004321110004); 湖南省高等学校科研基金重点项目(09A102); 国家林业局珍稀濒危物种野外救护与繁育项目(2009)


Diurnal activity time budget of Père David's deer in Hubei Shishou Milu National Nature Reserve, China
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Institute of Wildlife Conservation,Central South University of Forestry Technology,Institute of Wildlife Conservation,Central South University of Forestry Technology,Bureau of Hubei Shishou Milu National Nature Reserve,Shishou County,Institute of Zoology,the Chinese Academy of Sciences

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    摘要:

    为探讨性别、年龄和季节对麋鹿(Elaphurus davidianus)行为的影响,2006年9月-2007年10月,作者采用焦点取样法和瞬时记录法,将麋鹿昼间活动归为采食、饮水、运动、休息、警觉、其他行为等六大类型,每月 6-8 d 对湖北石首麋鹿国家级自然保护区麋鹿种群的昼间活动时间分配进行了跟踪观察。 结果表明:麋鹿有晨、昏两个采食高峰和一个午间休息期,各种行为类型所占比例依次是:休息 53.40% (± 5.59%)、采食 22.36 (± 8.34%)、运动 11.23% (± 0.63%)、警觉 5.03% (± 1.76%)、其他行为 4.42% (± 2.06%), 饮水 2.65%(± 0.74%)。不同季节, 时间分配变化明显。非参数 Kruskal Wallis H 检验结果显示(n=120),季节、年龄和性别显著影响麋鹿的活动时间分配。除运动行为 (χ2 =16.856, df=3, P>0.05)和饮水行为 (χ2=7.667, df=3, P >0.05)无显著差异外, 采食 (χ2 =15.657, df =3, P <0.01)、休息 (χ2 =13.173, df=3, P <0.01)、警觉 (χ2=13.887, df=3, P <0.01)和其他行为 (χ2=16.317, df=3, P<0.01) 在不同季节所占时间百分比均有极显著差异。对不同性别年龄组的活动时间分配采用两个独立样本的 Mann-Whitney U 检验, 各性别-年龄组间的运动行为所占时间比例有极显著差异 (P<0.01), 雄鹿与雌鹿之间的警觉行为有极显著差异 (P<0.01), 雄鹿花较多时间用于警觉。幼鹿与成年鹿及亚成年鹿之间的采食行为时间有极显著差异 (P<0.01)。不同性别、年龄组在不同季节的昼间活动时间分配的差异采用方差(ANOVA)分析后发现:所有年龄组,夏季与冬季饮水、春季与夏季警觉均存在显著性差异(P<0.01);成体和亚成体麋鹿,春季与冬季警觉、夏季与冬季运动均存在显著性差异 (P <0.01)。

    Abstract:

    To probe how sex, age and season influence the behavior of Père David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus), we studied the diurnal activity time budget of the Père David's deer in Hubei Shishou Milu National Nature Reserve, by using a focus sampling and instantaneous recording methods. We conducted observation for six to ten days each month from Sept. 2006 to Oct. 2007. The result showed that Père David's deer have crescent activity pattern: foraged mainly at dawn and dusk and took a break at noon. They spent the most of their time resting (53.40%), followed by feeding (22.36%), moving (11.23%), alertness (5.03%), drinking (2.65%), and others (4.42%). Season and age-sex classes significantly influenced the activity time budgets. A greater proportion of time was spent resting in summer (58%) and autumn (58%). Significant difference were found in feeding, rest, alert and other activities (P<0.01) except in drinking and moving (P>0.05) among seasons. Only moving behavior showed an extremely significant difference (P<0.01) and had no significant difference in rest (P>0.05) among age-sex classes. There was an extremely significant difference between the male deer and the female deer in alert behavior (P<0.01) while the adult males spent more time on alert than the adult females. Adults and the sub-adults spent more time feeding and rest, while calves spent more time moving, and less time feeding and rest. According to the results of ANOVA analysis on the diurnal activity time budget of sex-age classes at different seasons, for all age classes, extremely significant difference were found in drinking both summer and winter, in alertness both spring and summer (P<0.01). Moreover, for adult and subadult groups, there were extremely significant difference in alertness both spring and winter, in moving both summer and winter (P<0.01).

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杨道德,李竹云,李鹏飞,蒋志刚.湖北石首麋鹿昼间活动时间分配.生态学报,2013,33(5):1397~1404

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