太湖流域生态风险评价
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国家海洋环境监测中心,中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所

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水专项(2012ZX07501-001-03,2012ZX07506-001);中国科学院重点项目(NIGLAS2012135005);国家海洋局青年海洋科学基金(2013125)


The ecological risk assessment of Taihu Lake watershed
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National Marine Environment Monitoring Center,Naning Institute of Geography Limnology,Academy of Sciences

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    摘要:

    随着城镇的急剧扩张和经济的快速增长,流域生态环境遭到极大冲击和破坏,致使生态系统出现资源退化、环境恶化与灾害风险加剧的趋势,生态环境面临前所未有的挑战.从复合生态系统入手,深入分析流域内各生态系统要素之间的相互作用与影响机制,综合考虑多风险源、多风险受体和生态终点共存情况下的风险大小,从风险源危险度、生境脆弱度及受体损失度三方面构建了流域生态风险评价技术体系,并选取太湖流域为实证区域,对太湖流域2000年、2008年两个时期生态风险的时空演化特征进行评价与分析.结果表明:太湖流域生态风险指数介于0.015-0.253之间,以中等和较低生态风险为主.至2008年,高、较高生态风险所占面积逐渐扩大,已由2000年的5.66%、13.42%增加至6.05%、18.42%,主要集中在流域北部的常州市区、江阴市大部分地区以及无锡市区.

    Abstract:

    The ecological environment of watersheds has suffered from great shock and damage due to the rapid urban expansion and economic growth. This results in a trend of resource degradation, environmental degradation, disaster exacerbation, as well as the great challenge existing in ecological environment. In order to inhibit the deterioration of ecological environment and improve the human living environment, the ecological environment has been widely studied, resulting in increasing understanding of the environmental assessment. In recent years, with the transformation of environmental management goal and environmental concept, the ecological risk assessment (ERA) is becoming a key issue of ecological research as an important tool used in ecological management. During the last two decades, the study of the ecological risk assessment has been switched from biological toxicology and the effect of single chemical pollutant on environment and human health to the effect of nature disaster, the human activities (e.g., the land use, urbanization process) on the ecosystem in a large scale (e.g., the landscape, regional scales). Reference to the related research of ecological risk assessment, the paper investigates the interaction and influence mechanism among different watershed ecosystems, and assesses watershed ecological risk under the situation of multiple risk sources, risk factors, multi-endpoint and ecological receptors coexistence. Then, an index system including the hazard indicators of risk sources, the vulnerability indicators of habitats as well as the potential loss of risk receptors is build. The assessment technology system is mainly composed of comprehensive model, index system, level division and assessment unit. Finally, according to the assessment technology system build before to assess the ecological risk of Taihu Lake watershed in 2000 and 2008 using ArcGIS technologies, and then discuss the spatial-temporal evolution characteristics and the trends of ecological risk development based on the assessment results. The results show that the ecological risk values of Taihu Lake watershed range between 0.015 and 0.253, which mainly belongs to medium and low level according to the division standard of ecological risk level. The areas of higher and high level of ecological risk increased from 5.66% and 13.42% in 2000 to 6.05%, 18.42% in 2008, and number of total increasing area about 1696.13km2, which mainly concentrated in the northern of watershed, such as Changzhou, Wuxi, Jiangyin City, Suzhou City, Wujiang City, Yixing City, et al. According to the characteristic of different ecological risk level areas, we put forward differentiation risk management policy to improve ecological environment and maintain the stable situation of ecological system. In addition, we also give a brief evaluation of the trend of ecological risk areas, and the corresponding suggestion to control the risk. The paper will provide decision-making support and theoretical support for watershed ecological risk and environment management.

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许妍,高俊峰,郭建科.太湖流域生态风险评价.生态学报,2013,33(9):2896~2906

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