西南干旱对哀牢山常绿阔叶林凋落物及叶面积指数的影响
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中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园;中国科学院哀牢山亚热带森林生态系统研究站,中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园;美国迈阿密大学生物系,中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园;中国科学院哀牢山亚热带森林生态系统研究站,中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园;中国科学院哀牢山亚热带森林生态系统研究站,中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园;中国科学院哀牢山亚热带森林生态系统研究站,中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园;中国科学院哀牢山亚热带森林生态系统研究站,中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园;中国科学院哀牢山亚热带森林生态系统研究站

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中国科学院哀牢山亚热带森林生态系统研究站研究基金


The impacts of the Southwest China drought on the litterfall and leaf area index of an evergreen broadleaf forest on Ailao Mountain
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Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences;Ailaoshan Station for Subtropical Forest Ecosystem Studies,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences;Department of Biology, University of Miami, Miami,Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences;Ailaoshan Station for Subtropical Forest Ecosystem Studies,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences;Ailaoshan Station for Subtropical Forest Ecosystem Studies,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences;Ailaoshan Station for Subtropical Forest Ecosystem Studies,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences;Ailaoshan Station for Subtropical Forest Ecosystem Studies,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences;Ailaoshan Station for Subtropical Forest Ecosystem Studies,Chinese Academy of Sciences

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    摘要:

    为探讨2010年初西南干旱对这一地区原生植被林冠和凋落物量的影响,以及这一地区凋落物量和气候条件之间的关系,对比研究了哀牢山亚热带常绿阔叶林2010年和一般年份的凋落物特征以及各层的叶面积指数,并分析了凋落物量和气候因子之间的关系.2010年凋落物总量和往年相比无显著差异,但是叶凋落总量、旱季凋落物总量、旱季叶凋落量为历年来最高,其中旱季叶凋落物量比一般年份平均高35.2%(0.81t/hm2).而2010年附生苔蘚年凋落量为历年来最低.2010年最旱月的乔木层和灌木层叶面积指数和2005同期相比无显著差异,但是草本层叶面积指数却极显著低于2005年同期.因此,2010年初西南干旱尽管使哀牢山常绿阔叶林旱季落叶增加,但还没有到显著影响冠层叶面积指数的程度.而草本层和附生苔藓的生长则受到了干旱事件的显著影响.此外,哀牢山常绿阔叶林年总凋落量和年降水量显著正相关,而和年均温却不相关,表明该亚热带森林凋落物量主要由降水而非温度决定.

    Abstract:

    Drought is a major disturbance that greatly influences the structure, composition, dynamics and primary production of a forest. Since drought frequency and strength are predicted to increase in the future, understanding the response of natural forests to drought is crucial for predicting the performance of forests under global climate change. In late 2009 and early 2010, a severe drought (rainfall anomaly) occurred in Southwest (SW) China. This severe drought event had a large impact on the regional agriculture and economy of this region, and attracted great attentions of scientists and the public. It has also been recognized as the most severe drought of a century. However, the impacts of this severe rainfall anomaly on natural ecosystems were not well assessed. The objectives of our study were (1) to evaluate the impacts of this rainfall anomaly on forest canopy and litterfall of natural forests in this region, and (2) to establish the relationship between climatic factors and litterfall for natural forests in this region. In the present study, we compared the litterfall and its different components, as well as the leaf area index of different forest layers of an evergreen broadleaf forest onAilao Mountain between the 2010 unusual drought and the previous year drought with normal rainfall amounts. We also analyzed the relationship between litterfall and climatic factors, including annual mean temperature, annual rainfall, and annual number of rainy days. No significant difference was found in annual litterfall between 2010 and the previous years. However, annual leaf fall, dry season litterfall, and dry season leaf fall in 2010, were higher than those in any previous year. Dry season leaf fall in 2010 was 35.2% (0.81 t/hm2)higher than the average during normal years. Notably, the annual fall of epiphytic mosses in 2010 was a historical minimum. No difference was found in leaf area index of the overstorey and understoreylayers between 2010 dry season and 2005 dry season (a year with a normal rainfall amount).However, leaf area index of the herbaceous layer in 2010 dry season was significantly lower than that of the 2005 dry season. Therefore, although the regional rainfall anomaly in early 2010 increased leaf fall in the dry season, it did not significantly influence the canopy leaf area index. The growth of the herbaceous layer and the epiphytic mosses, howeverwere significantly affected. A significant positive relationship between annual litterfall and annual rainfall, as well as a negative relationship between dry season litterfall and dry season rainfall were found. There was no relationship between annual litterfall (or its components: leaf, stem, epiphytic mosses) and mean annual temperature. Therefore, the primary production and litterfall of this subtropical forest is determined by rainfall rather than by temperature. This pattern is different from the result from a previous study in Northeast China, showing that forest litterfall is mainly determined by mean annual temperature. This could be because subtropical forests are relatively warmer than the temperate forests in Northeast China, and temperature is not a major limiting factor on the forest primary production and litterfall of subtropical forests. This relationship could be further tested in other subtropical forests to reveal more general patterns.

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杞金华,章永江,张一平,刘玉洪,鲁志云,武传胜,温韩东.西南干旱对哀牢山常绿阔叶林凋落物及叶面积指数的影响.生态学报,2013,33(9):2877~2885

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