中国园林生态学发展综述
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南京农业大学 园林景观研究所,南京农业大学 园林景观研究所,南京农业大学 园林景观研究所

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论文所占比重仅为10.8%,说明我国园林生态学研究领域科研投入总体上是偏少的。中国家级基金最多(142项,占45%),地方基金次之(127项,占40%),部委与科研院所相对较少(29项和13项,各占9%和4%),高校基金与国际基金资助最少(3项和1项)。由此可知,我国园林生态学研究领域科研获得资助的主要途径是国家级基金。


Review on the development of landscape architecture ecology in China
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Institute of Landscape Architecture,Institute of Landscape Architecture,

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    摘要:

    运用文献计量等方法对已有科研成果进行统计分析,结果表明:中国近50年园林生态学科领域科研发展经过了起步探索(1962-1981)、缓慢发展(1982-2001)、快速发展(2002-2011)3个时期,园林生态学作为生态学一个新的分支学科,于20世纪90年代末初见端倪,作为一门新兴独立的应用生态学分支学科于21世纪初已基本形成.中国园林生态学领域的研究包括园林生态系统中生物与环境相互作用关系问题、人与环境相互作用关系问题以及园林生态系统与其他生态系统之间相互作用关系问题.当代园林生态研究主要有生态效益研究、生物与环境研究、人的需求与行为研究、生态规划与生态管理研究4个方面,目前园林生态学研究主要侧重生物与环境研究和生态效益研究,两方面的研究成果占总体研究成果的76.3%.不同研究方面也有各自的侧重点,如生物与环境研究侧重对植物的研究,生态效益研究侧重净化环境、水土保持和防灾减灾,生态规划与生态管理研究则侧重生态规划与设计.对四个研究方面的论文主题词检索和高频主题关键词的分布进行统计,结果显示,研究的热点有多样性、群落、水土保持、防灾避险、净化环境、生态规划与设计等.对CNKI中4个研究方面成果中获基金资助项目论文进行统计(不排重),总体成果中基金项目论文所占比重为10.8%,国家和地方基金是园林生态学科研基金资助的主要来源,基金论文比例之和达到85.4%,且国家和地方基金资助论文较多的是"生态与环境研究"和"生态效益研究",合计占基金论文79.1%.SCI-E中收录的文献基金论文率为47.1%,是CNKI数据库收录的文献基金论文率的4.3倍,且国际基金是基金论文的主要资助来源之一,说明中国园林生态学领域部分科研成果得到国际学界关注.基于CNKI相关主题词统计,"园林生态学"的研究成果只有"景观生态学"的1%,"城市生态学"的8.3%,"园林生态学"学科系统理论研究在相关生态学科研究中所占比重很低,其理论和方法研究还较薄弱.今后在进一步完善学科理论体系、持续开展生态效益和园林植物研究的同时,为更好地研究和解决人-自然复合生态系统问题,提供更多的科学理论支撑,还需拓展交叉生态心理学或环境心理学等其他相关理论,更多地关注人与环境互相作用关系以及生态规划与生态管理等方面的研究,既使环境更好地满足人的行为需求,也使人认识到改变一些行为能更好地保护环境.

    Abstract:

    The bibliometric data of scientific research on landscape architecture ecology was statistically analyzed. The results show that the recent 50 years' scientific research in China has experienced three periods: exploration (1962-1981), slow development (1982-2001) and rapid expansion (2002-2011). Landscape architecture ecology in China was a new branch field of ecology at the end of 1990s, and it was basically formed as a new and independent branch field of the applied ecology at the beginning of the 21st century. The research issues of landscape architecture ecology field in China include interactive relations between biology and environment, human and environment in landscape architecture ecological system, and interactive relation between landscape architecture ecological system and other ecological system. Present research of landscape architecture ecology includes four research sub-areas, namely eco-efficiency, biology and environment, human need and behavior, and ecological planning and management. Currently, the research mainly focuses on the first two areas: eco-efficiency and biology and environment, and 76.3 percent research achievements are from these two areas. Different research area has its own emphasis. For example, biology and environment research particularly emphasizes on plants; eco-efficiency research stresses on environmental decontamination, soil and water conservation and disaster prevention and reduction; and ecological planning and management research pays particular attention on ecological planning and designing. The data of distribution of the four research sub-areas' theses subjects and high frequency subject keywords was statistically analyzed, and results show that the hot topics in landscape architecture ecology are diversity, community, soil and water conservation,emergency and disaster-prevention, environmental decontamination, ecological planning and designing etc.. Statistically analysis on the published papers generated by the funded projects in all four research sub-areas is 10.8%, mostly (85.4%) by national and local government fund. Interestingly, these two funding sources particular emphasizes on biology and environment and eco-efficiency research, accounting for 79.1%. Among published papers in SCI-E journals, 47.1% were fund papers, which is 4.3 times of those published in CNKI journals. The papers published in SCI-E journals have mostly been supported by international funds, suggesting that these projects on China's landscape architecture ecology have been concerned by the international academic circles. Based on the statistically analysis of related subjects in CNKI, the research papers on "landscape architecture ecology" just equal 1% of that on "landscape ecology", 8.3% of that on "urban ecology", suggesting that the disciplinary system theory research of landscape architecture ecology is not as important as other related ecology research. The theories and research methodologies of landscape architecture ecology are still weak. In the future, the emphasis should be placed on discipline's theory, research more on eco-efficiency and sustainability of the landscape architecture plants. At the same time, in order to better solve problems of human and natural compound ecosystems, and provide more scientific theory support, research should be expanded to related theories such as cross ecological psychology, environmental psychology and so on, and more attention should be paid on the interaction between human and environment and ecological planning and ecological management, which could let environment be better to satisfy human behavior need, and let human know that we can well protect environment by changing some behavior.

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于艺婧,马锦义,袁韵珏.中国园林生态学发展综述.生态学报,2013,33(9):2665~2675

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