不同干扰对黄土区典型草原物种多样性和生物量的影响
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中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所,中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所,国家林业局中南林业调查规划设计院,西北农林科技大学,中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所,中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所,西北农林科技大学

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国家自然科学基金重点项目(41230852);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项项目(XDA05050202);农业部 "现代农业产业技术体系建设专项资助(CARS-35-40)


Effects of different disturbances on diversity and biomass of communities in the typical steppe of loess region
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Institute of Soil and Water Conservation,Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources,Yangling Shaanxi,Institute of Soil and Water Conservation,Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources,Yangling Shaanxi,Central South Forest Inventory and Planning Institute of State Forestry Administration,Changsha Hunan,Northwest Agricultural Forestry University,Yangling Shaanxi,,Institute of Soil and Water Conservation,Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources,Yangling Shaanxi,Northwest Agricultural Forestry University,Yangling Shaanxi

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    摘要:

    对黄土区典型草原进行封育+施肥(EF)、封育+火烧(EB)、封育(E)和放牧(G)处理,实地调查分析群落盖度、高度、密度、地上现存量和物种多样性,以研究不同干扰对黄土区典型草原群落物种多样性和生物量的影响.结果表明:在4种干扰类型中,施肥+封育草地群落盖度和地上生物量最高,且优势度指数最高,这与禾本科草占优势地位有关,群落均匀度指数和多样性指数最低,符合"生态位理论";放牧地群落高度、盖度、密度和地上现存量最低,群落丰富度指数和多样性指数最高,支持"中度干扰理论";封育地密度和均匀度指数最高;具体表现为:4种干扰类型地上生物量的变化趋势为封育+施肥>封育+火烧>封育>放牧;说明长时间的封育对草地是一种严重干扰.群落丰富度指数(RMa)的排列顺序为放牧>封育+施肥>封育+火烧>封育,群落物种多样性指数(H'和D)的排列顺序为放牧>封育>封育+火烧>封育+施肥,优势度指数与多样性指数相反,群落均匀度指数(JswEa)的排列顺序为封育>放牧>封育+火烧>封育+施肥.不同干扰样地群落生产力与Shannon-Wiener和Simpson多样性指数间呈负相关关系,这个结论可以用地上/地下竞争的相互作用来解释.

    Abstract:

    Typical steppe is a type of grassland which forms in inland temperate semi-arid climatic conditions, where xerophytic perennial bush grasses, especially Stipa spp., dominate. Grassland ecosystems are one of the largest terrestrial ecosystems affected by human activities. It is important to study the impact of different types of disturbance on the biodiversity and biomass of grasslands ecosystems during restoration and reconstruction work. Exclosures, grazing, fertilization and burning are four major types of anthropogenic disturbance occurring in grassland ecosystems, and have very important impacts on them. To provide a scientific basis for the protection of grassland biodiversity and the sustainable use of grasslands, the influences of different disturbances on the characteristics of above-ground vegetation were studied in a typical steppe in the loess region of China based on the field investigation and monitoring. We established plots representing four different types of treatments: exclosure (E), exclosure plus fertilization (EF), exclosure plus burning (EB) and grazing (G). All plots had the same soil type, topography and hydrological conditions. During the entire experiment, we determined total coverage, vegetation height, individual density, aboveground biomass and diversity of the plant community in each plot. Our results show the dominant vegetation community type of G plots is Agropyron cristatum+Potentilla acaulis+Artemisia sacrorum, a community which is the result of long-term grazing. The dominant vegetation community type of the E plots is Stipa grandis+Poa sphondylodes+Medicago ruthenica, a result of fencing. The dominant vegetation community type of the EF plots is Carex duriuscula+Stipa bungeana+Stipa grandis. The dominant vegetation community type of the EB plots is Artemisia sacrorum+Stipa bungeana+Stipa grandis. The different disturbance regimes strongly influenced community diversity and biomass. To be more specific, total coverage, above-ground biomass and the dominance indices were all at the highest level in the EF treatments in four types of treatments. This may attributed to grass species which play a dominant role in this community. Also, with low evenness and diversity indices, this result was consistent with niche theory which states differences among species in their environmental tolerances, niche requirements, and competitive abilities determine coexistence. Total coverage, height and aboveground biomass were all lowest for the G treatment, while community richness and diversity indices were higher for G than other three treatments. This result supports the intermediate disturbance hypothesis which states that biodiversity will be greatest in communities subjected to moderate levels of disturbance. Only the individual density and evenness index was higher with the E treatment than with the other treatments. Thus we can document the trend for biomass as EF > EB > E > G. These demonstrate long-term exclosure is a severe type of disturbance in grassland ecosystems. Also, the community richness indices (R and Ma) showed a certain tendency within these four treatments: G > EF > EB > E and community evenness indices (Jsw and Ea) could be sequenced in the order of E > G > EB > EF. Meanwhile, the order of diversity indices (H' and D) was as follows: G > E > EB > EF, while the dominance index was opposite the order of diversity index. Finally, there was negative correlation between community productivity and Shannon-Wiener and Simpson indices, which can be explained by interactions between root and shoot competition.

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陈芙蓉,程积民,刘伟,朱仁斌,杨晓梅,赵新宇,苏纪帅.不同干扰对黄土区典型草原物种多样性和生物量的影响.生态学报,2013,33(9):2856~2866

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