铜尾矿废弃地土壤动物多样性特征
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安徽师范大学,安徽师范大学,安徽师范大学,安徽师范大学,安徽师范大学

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国家自然科学基金项目(41001031)


Soil fauna diversity of abandoned land in a copper mine tailing area
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anhui normal university,,,,

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    摘要:

    土壤动物的恢复、群落演替及其多样性对于铜尾矿废弃地的生态重建具有重要意义。为了解铜尾矿废弃地土壤动物群落多样性特征,在铜陵市铜尾矿区设置4个样地23采样点,共捕获土壤动物4622只个体,隶属5门10纲18目29类。结果表明,铜尾矿自然废弃地与其对照组土壤动物多样性差异明显,自然废弃地土壤动物丰富度指数d、大型土壤动物密度、中小型土壤动物密度、多样性指数H'和D·G指数均小于其对照组且存在显著差异。而复垦废弃地中小型土壤动物密度和D·G指数小于其对照组且存在显著差异,多样性指数H'大于其对照组且差异极显著,其他土壤动物群落指标与其对照组均无显著差异。相似系数q表明,外围林地间土壤动物群落相似性最大,其次是复垦废弃地与外围林地间,自然废弃地与其它3个样地间相似性最小。从垂直分层来看,复垦废弃地土壤动物表聚性强于自然废弃地,尾矿废弃地表聚性强于外围林地。灰色关联分析表明,铜尾矿区土壤理化性质与土壤动物群落结构指标关系密切,其中最重要的因素是土壤含水量和总钾含量,重金属全镉含量也不容忽视,植被因素和土壤全铜含量对土壤动物的影响相对较小。由此可见,土壤含水量、土壤基质的优劣、土壤有机质与营养元素的含量等因素限制了铜尾矿废弃地土壤动物的恢复与重建,而这些因素的改善主要归功于尾矿废弃地的土地复垦和作物种植。所以,尾矿废弃地的复垦与利用有利于土壤动物的恢复与重建。

    Abstract:

    Community succession and soil fauna diversity are very important factors in the ecological reconstruction of land abandoned after copper mine tailing. To understand its soil faunal community diversity features, 23 sample points in four plots (natural abandoned land and a control and reclaimed abandoned land and a control) were selected from a copper mine tailing area in the city of Tongling. A total of 4622 individuals of soil fauna were collected which belonged to 29 genera, 5 phyla, 10 classes and 18 orders. The results show that Acarina, Collembola and Nematodes were the dominant groups, Oligochaeta, Formicidae, Diptera larvae, Coleoptera larvae, Diplura, Araneae and Harpacticoida were the frequent groups and the other groups were rare. There were significant differences in soil faunal diversity between natural abandoned land and its control group. The richness index (d), density of soil macrofauna, mesofauna and microfauna, Shannon-Wiener (H') diversity index and density groups (D·G) diversity index of soil fauna from natural abandoned land was significantly less than that of its control group. However, the density of soil macrofauna and the D·G diversity index of soil fauna from reclaimed abandoned land were significantly less than that of its control group. The H' diversity index from reclaimed abandoned land was more than that of its control group with very significant differences, but the other indices of soil faunal diversity were not different to those of the control group. The Jaccard similarity coefficient (q) indicated that the most similar values were between the soil fauna communities of the two control groups, and second, between that of reclaimed abandoned land and the two control groups, and with the least similarity between that of natural abandoned land and the three other sampling sites. The surface aggregation of soil fauna in reclaimed abandoned land was more obvious than that in natural abandoned land and the surface aggregation of soil fauna at the two abandoned lands sites were more obvious than that of the control groups. Grey relevant analysis revealed that there was a close relationship between the soil physicochemical properties in the copper mine tailing area and the structure indices of soil fauna. The most important factors included soil water content and total potassium. Cadmium content should also be considered. The soil fauna appeared to be relatively unaffected by the vegetation characteristics and the total copper content of the soil. It appears that the soil water content, the quality of the soil matrix, soil organic matter quality and content and the soil nutrient content are the restraining factors for the recovery and rebuilding of soil fauna in land abandoned after copper mine tailing. The improvement of these factors is mainly owing to the reclamation of the land for cropping. Therefore, the reclamation of the abandoned lands for cropping and planting is beneficial for the recovery and rebuilding of the soil fauna. The recovery and rebuilding of soil fauna in the natural reclamation of abandoned copper mine tailing land largely from natural invasion was discussed in comparison with reclamation with man-made soil covering.

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朱永恒,沈非,余健,张小会,陆林.铜尾矿废弃地土壤动物多样性特征.生态学报,2013,33(5):1495~1505

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