中国餐厨垃圾处理的现状、问题和对策
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中山大学生命科学学院昆虫学研究所,广东,中山大学生命科学学院昆虫学研究所,广东,中山大学生命科学学院昆虫学研究所,广东

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中山大学中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金(3165004)


Food waste management in China: status, problems and solutions
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Institute of Entomology,School of Life Science,Sun Yat-sen University;China,Institute of Entomology,School of Life Science,Sun Yat-sen University;China,Institute of Entomology,School of Life Science,Sun Yat-sen University;China

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    摘要:

    餐厨垃圾具有高水分、高盐分、高有机质含量、组分时空差异明显、危害性与资源性并存的特点。目前国内外常用的餐厨垃圾处理技术如焚烧、卫生填埋、生态饲料、厌氧消化、好氧堆肥和蚯蚓堆肥等,通常存在着资源化利用效率低、经济效益不够理想的缺陷。总结相关文献及报道,中国在餐厨垃圾资源化处理上存在"行政瓶颈"和"技术瓶颈"两大方面的问题:"行政瓶颈"的解决之道在于完善管理及处理体系,各级政府部门切实重视、加大投入,强力推进垃圾分类投放;而对于"技术瓶颈",除综合运用多种现有处理技术外,开发新技术提高餐厨垃圾的资源化循环利用程度,是关键所在。

    Abstract:

    The present paper reviewed the food waste management in China, specially analyzed the basic features of food waste, summarized the current disposal technologies, pointed out the present problems, and suggested countermeasures for future in the food waste management of China. Food waste is characterized by high moisture, salinity and organic matter content, which makes it possess duplicity with the perishable and smelly as a waste and the potential as a recycling biotic resource. There is significant spatial and temporal variations in components of food waste from different areas due to geographic differences, eating habits and cultural traditions. Thereby it is usually difficult to process various food waste with a unitary approach. At present, commonly used disposal technologies for food waste include incineration, sanitary landfill, ecofeed, anaerobic digestion, aerobic composting, and vermicomposting. However, incineration is featured with heavy energy consumption because of the high moisture character and sanitary landfill occupies a lot of places with the possibility of the secondary pollution. Other unconventional approaches (except for incineration and sanitary landfill) also have common limitations, such as a long processing period, complex operation, inefficient reclamation and low economic value, when referred to the principle of decrement, innoxiousness, and reclamation. In recent years, more and more attentions have been paid to the food waste reclamation in view of the gradually serious predicament of garbage siege. Nevertheless, the food waste reclamation is still in its infancy with many problems of management and disposal. Above all, it is reported that the amount of food waste generated in China is not less than 60 million tons per year, accounting for 40%-50% of the municipal solid wastes, but the reclamation ratio is extremely low. Moreover, an effective collection system and relevant laws/regulations have not been established. Guangzhou is the only city to issue the Interim Provisions of Garbage Classification Management till the present moment, where refuse sorting is made mandatory for citizens. There is no national law of food waste management in China, and only Xining issued a district law Regulations of Food Waste Management in Xining. Besides, the economic value of the current processing technologies is low at large, and local financial subsidy is requisite to the development of food waste processing technologies and companies which are responsible for food waste disposal. Ultimately, it is difficult to dispose food waste completely using existing technologies, and the liquid of food waste is usually discharged into sewage treatment system. High salinity in the liquid from food waste brings overburdens to the sewage treatment system, not only hindering the growth of microorganism in sewage treatment system, but also corroding relative equipments. All these problems can be broadly grouped into two areas, administrative bottleneck and technical bottleneck. The solution of administrative bottleneck lies in improving management and disposal systems, and all levels of government should pay more attentions and increase investment to the garbage sorting. Whereas the solution of technical bottleneck requires comprehensive use of multiple processing technologies, as well as research and development of new technologies to improve the degree of food waste recycling. And a creative and feasible technology was suggested in the end of this paper, which could be used to recycle food waste efficiently by flies naturrally occurred in organic wastes.

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胡新军,张敏,余俊锋,张古忍.中国餐厨垃圾处理的现状、问题和对策.生态学报,2012,32(14):4575~4584

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