商洛低山丘陵区农林复合生态系统中大豆与丹参的光合生理特性
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商洛学院 生物医药工程系,西北农林科技大学 林学院

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陕西省自然科学基金项目(2010JQ3007);商洛市政府科技计划项目(09skj001);商洛学院博士启动基金项目(09sky024)


Photosynthetic characteristics of soybean and salvia in an agroforestry system in the Hilly Region, Shangluo, China
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Department of Biological and Medical Engineering,ShangLuo College,ShangLuo,College of Forestry,Northwest A F University,Yangling

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    摘要:

    农林复合系统作为一种传统而又新兴的土地利用和经营方式在改善商洛生态环境、增加该区农民收入、促进其生态和经济协调发展等方面发挥着非常重要的作用。为了研究林下作物的生理生态特性,对研究区农林复合系统中不同处理大豆、丹参的光合、叶绿素荧光参数进行了系统观测。结果表明,从单作到距核桃1m处,距核桃树越近,遮光愈多。各处理大豆的光合速率(Pn)、气孔导度(Gs)和蒸腾速率(Tr)表现出与光合有效辐射(PAR)基本一致的日变化趋势。不同处理丹参光合速率日变化趋势各不相同,且出现"午休"现象。与单作相比,各处理大豆、丹参的光合速率、气孔导度和蒸腾速率均有不同程度的降低。随着遮荫程度的提高,大豆、丹参叶绿素含量和表观量子效率(Ф)升高,光饱和点(LSP)和光补偿点(LCP)降低。二者叶绿素荧光参数最大光能转换效率(Fv/Fm) 、PSⅡ电子传递量子效率(ФPSⅡ)以及光化学猝灭系数(qP)均有不同程度的升高,而非光化学猝灭系数(qNP)却逐渐降低。说明大豆、丹参能适应弱光环境,在较低的光照条件下正常生长。

    Abstract:

    Agroforestry systems promote ecological, social and economic benefits in comparison with traditional forestry systems. Agroforestry systems provide various products for household including but not limited to, food and medicinal products for humans and animals, timber for construction, fuelwood for domestic use and income for the household. They also contribute to environmental sustainability and can act as a buffer to climate extremes. In order to study the physioecological characteristics of soybeans and salvia grown in agroforestry systems, the photosynthetic characteristics and parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence were examined. The study sites were located in Shanghe village (latitude 33°50'19″N, longitude 109°53'38″E, elevation 451m a.s.l.), Shangluo, Shaanxi Province. The total extent of the study site is 8 hectares. In this study, soybeans (Glycine max L. Merr.) Qindou 8, and medical plant salvia (Radin salviae Miltiorrhizae) were selected as agricultural crops. Within the study site, best areas were selected to implement the two treatment combinations, walnut-soybeans and walnut-salvia, replicated 3 times. In addition, areas without walnut trees were also selected for control measurements. The walnut trees were planted in 2004 at a within row spacing of 3m and between row spacing of 5m. The tree rows were oriented north-south. Twelve sample locations around each tree were assigned in the following manner: 1) perpendicular to the tree trunk at 1m and 2.5 m east and west (4 locations), 2) and at the same distances (1m and 2.5m east and west) from the tree row at 1 m north (4 locations) and 1 m south (4 locations) of the tree trunk. At each time of sampling, a single leaf from the upper crop canopy was selected at the above indicated locations. The results indicated that photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) was reduced significantly from full daylight at 1m from the walnut tree rows. The diurnal variations of photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomata conductance (Gs) and transpiration rate (Tr) of soybean were also lower close to the tree rows. The diurnal variations of photosynthetic rate in salvia at different distances from the tree row were different, and there was a "lunch break" phenomenon observed. The photosynthetic parameters for both crops were lower in the agroforestry system compared to the rates measured in the control treatment. The total chlorophyll and apparent quantum yield (Ф) for both crops increased, whereas the light compensation point (LCP) and light saturation point (LSP) decreased with increasing degree of shade. Meanwhile, the Fv/Fm, ФPSⅡ and qP were significantly higher than those quantified in the control treatment for both crops, But, qNP decreased with increasing degree of shade, indicating that soybean and salvia have strong adaptability to low irradiance. The research area is located in the ShangLuo Mountain area, and the regional economic development is very slow, and land natural resources is also in short supply. Therefore, based on the results from this study, it appears that agroforestry systems can potentially restore these disturbed lands and contribute to the development of the economy in the hilly region in Shangluo.

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彭晓邦,张硕新.商洛低山丘陵区农林复合生态系统中大豆与丹参的光合生理特性.生态学报,2013,33(6):1926~1934

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