气候变暖对昆虫影响研究进展
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国家自然科学基金资助项目(30871637); 公益性行业科研专项资助项目(200803006和200803001); 国家技术平台资助项目(2005DKA 21105)


Effect of global warming on insect: a literature review
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    摘要:

    “全球气候变化”已成为国内外最受关注的环境问题。气候变化中以温度升高为特征的气候变暖对变温动物昆虫自身及其所在的生物群落产生直接或间接影响。从研究内容与研究方法2个方面综述了气候变暖对昆虫影响研究的国内外进展。气候变暖导致昆虫发生期提前,地理分布向更高纬度和海拔地区扩散,低温适生种种群密度下降,高温适生种种群密度增加。气候变暖改变寄主植物—害虫—天敌的物候同步性和昆虫原有种间互作关系,影响植食性昆虫的寄主植物范围和取食为害程度。长期的气候变暖带来的强烈的选择性压力引起某些昆虫种群的基因组发生变异。以日均温升高、日最高气温升高和昼夜温差变化等为主要特征气候变暖对昆虫发育、繁殖及存活等生态学指标产生重要影响。研究方法上主要是利用野外直接观察法、回归预测模型、有效积温模型、CLIMEX和GIS等生态风险评估软件、生物化石比较技术、人工气候下生态试验、检测标记基因频率变化等方法来研究气候变暖对昆虫的影响。最后简要评述了已有研究的不足并指出未来的研究方向:(1)气候变暖情景下开展昆虫种间互作研究并拓展研究对象;(2)高温下昆虫适应性研究;(3)建立完善人工模拟气候下的实验方法;(4)构建昆虫有效生态机理模型。

    Abstract:

    Climate change is an important environmental problem which has caused great concern around the world. Climate change\|particularly global warming\|has a direct and indirect impact on poikilothermic animals, especially for insects and the biotic community around them. We review the most recent progress in effects of global warming on insects and methodologies used in the research. Global warming may lead to an advance in insect phenology, and shift in geographic distribution to higher latitude and altitude. It may also restrain abundance of the low temperature adaptive species and promote abundance of the high temperature adaptive species. In addition, global warming disturbs the synchrony of host plant\|herbivore\|natural enemy in phenology and other interactions among different species, modifies the spectrum of host\|plants and feeding capacity of insects. An intense stress caused by long\|term high temperature leads to a variation of gene frequency in insect population. Furthermore, global warming in terms of the increase in daily average temperature and maximum temperature, and the decrease in diurnal temperature have crucial effects on the development, reproduction, and survival of insect. The main research approaches to study effects of global warming on insects include: direct observation in field, regression models developed with historical data, day\|degree models, and ecological risk assessment programs e.g. CLIMEX and GIS, paleontological comparison, ecological experiments in climate chambers, and examination of the gene frequency with gene marker. At last, we review the weakness of previous studies and point out research directions in the near future: (1) investigating biology and ecology of more species of important crop pests, and inter\|specific interactions under global warming scenarios; (2) studying more on insect adaptation to high temperature; (3) developing new experimental approaches and collecting better data under artificial climate conditions; (4) constructing validated ecological models of insects which was driven by temperature and other ecological factors.

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陈瑜,马春森*.气候变暖对昆虫影响研究进展.生态学报,2010,30(8):2159~2172

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