不同施肥处理对土壤水稳定性团聚体及有机碳分布的影响
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国家“十一五”科技支撑计划资助项目(2006BAD29B01; 2006BAD29B02);中国博士后科学基金资助项目(20080440461); 国家自然科学基金资助项目(30471012); 国家基础研究重大项目前期研究专项资助项目(2001CCB00800, 2003CCB00300)


Distribution of water-stable aggregates and organic carbon of arable soils affected by different fertilizer application
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    摘要:

    以国家褐潮土16a的长期肥料试验为平台(北京昌平),研究长期不同施肥对耕层土壤水稳定性团聚体及其有机碳的影响。主要研究结果:与耕种农田土壤相比,长期撂荒(CK0)可以提高水稳定性大团聚体的含量及其有机碳含量和储量。而农田耕作后,破坏了水稳性大团聚体,相应地增加水稳性微团聚体的含量。与长期不施肥种植作物(CK)相比,长期施氮磷钾肥(NPK)、氮磷钾配施有机肥(NPKM)和氮磷钾秸秆还田(NPKS)处理对水稳性团聚体数量分布和平均重量直径(MWD)有显著影响,其中对>2mm和0.25-2mm水稳性大团聚体的促进作用最明显,说明施肥处理增加的新碳主要向0.25-2mm和>2mm团聚体富集。在不同水平水稳性团聚体中,>2mm和0.25-2mm两个级别的水稳性大团聚体有机碳的含量显著高于0.053-0.25mm和<0.053mm水稳性微团聚体。化肥与有机肥配施(NPKM)处理可提高水稳性大团聚体含量,改善土壤团聚体的结构。长期小麦-玉米→小麦-大豆复种轮作并施氮磷钾化肥的处理(NPKF)各级团聚体中有机碳的含量高于长期小麦-玉米轮作并施氮磷钾化肥的处理(NPK)。

    Abstract:

    We investigated the effects of 16 years long-term fertilizer experiment on aggregate size distribution and the carbon in aggregates of a Drab Fluvo-aquic soil in Beijing. Six treatments were chosen for this work: Four were in a wheat-maize rotation receiving either no fertilizer (CK), mineral fertilizers (NPK), mineral fertilizers plus farmyard manure (NPKM) or mineral fertilizers with maize straw incorporated (NPKS). One was in a wheat-maize/wheat-soybean rotation receiving NPK (NPKF). The other was abandoned arable land (CK0) growing weeds. The amount of chemical fertilizer applied per year was 150 kg N hm-2, 75 kg P2O5 hm-2, 45 kg K2O hm-2, 22.5 t manure hm-2 and 2.25 t maize straw hm-2. Soil samples were separated into four aggregate-size classes (>2mm, 0.25-2mm, 0.053-0.25mm and <0053mm). The results shows than the amount of >2mm water-stable aggregates and organic carbon were found to be higher in long-term abandoned arable land than those in cultivated arable land soils. Macro-aggregates are more susceptible to disruptive forces induced by cultivation, which are less than micro-aggregates. Compared to no fertilizer application treatment (CK), long-term fertilizer application (NPK, NPKM and NPKS) had a significant influence on aggregate size distribution and aggregate stability, and had most effectively accelerate the formation of groups of >2mm and 0.25-2mm aggregates, that show the newly enriched organic carbon mostly appeared in aggregate fractions >2mm and 0.25-2mm.The SOC concentration was greater for macro-aggregates (>2mm and 0.25-2mm) than micro-aggregates (0.053-025mm and <0.053mm) in the abandoned arable land and cultivated arable land soils. After applying mineral fertilizers plus farmyard manure (NPKM), the contents of macro-aggregates increased significantly, being beneficial to the improvement of soil structure. The content of SOC in aggregates was higher in wheat-maize/wheat-soybean rotation cropping system compared to continuous wheat-maize cropping system.

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刘恩科,赵秉强*,梅旭荣,HWAT Bing-So,李秀英,李娟.不同施肥处理对土壤水稳定性团聚体及有机碳分布的影响.生态学报,2010,30(4):1035~1041

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