基于“源-汇”生态过程的长江上游农业非点源污染
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国家教育部新世纪优秀人才支持计划资助项目(NCET-06-0130);国家重点基础研究发展规划(973)课题资助项目(2003CB415204)


The agricultural non-point sources pollution in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River based on source-sink ecological process
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    摘要:

    景观空间格局是农业非点源污染的主要影响因素之一,关于二者的相互关系缺乏定量研究。针对长江上游的农业非点源污染问题,应用基于“源-汇”生态过程理论提出的景观空间负荷对比指数,选取9个典型的行政单元,探讨了长江上游流域景观空间格局和非点源污染之间的定量关系。结果表明,景观空间负荷对比指数对非点源污染负荷有显著的响应关系,说明景观空间负荷对比指数可作为非点源污染空间风险评价的有用方法之一。在此基础上,进一步分析了长江上游典型行政单元景观空间负荷对比指数时空演变规律。探讨了指数演变时空差异原因,认为该指数主要受到区域景观的坡度、与污染出口相对距离、高程、土地利用类型比重和农业与农村经济政策的影响。最后提出了长江上游非点源污染空间风险控制与管理的对策。

    Abstract:

    Landscape pattern is one of the main influence factors of agricultural non-point sources (NPS) pollution. The study of the relation of landscape and NPS is scarce and steadily become one of the key research areas now. Aimed at the agricultural NPS pollution problem, a study is carried out in the nine typical districts of the upper reaches of the Yangtze River using the location-weighted landscape contrast index(LCI) which is a landscape pattern evaluation method constructed on the base of the source and sink ecological processes theory. The result showed that LCI responded to NPS pollution load significantly, so LCI can be a good indicator in the evaluation of NPS pollution. Then the spatio-temporal characteristics of the LCIs are analyzed, and the reasons of these characteristics are explored. The slope degree, relative distance to the pollution outlets, elevation and the percentages of different land-use patterns are considered as the main reasons of these characteristics. So a new thinking of controlling NPS pollution is provided, that is, controlling the future spatial risk of NPS pollution by planning and managing the landscape spatial pattern. Finally the countermeasures for the control and management of the NPS spatial risk in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River are discussed: (1)strengthen the management and the improvement tillage of the hillside field; (2)strengthen the management of the agricultural spatial landscape pattern, minimize the NPS pollution load in the outlets form the “source” and “sink” point of view; (3)strengthen the construction of the demonstration areas which control the agricultural NPS pollution spatial risk to perfect the theory and the practice of controlling NPS pollution from the landscape pattern point of view.

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刘芳,,沈珍瑶*,刘瑞民.基于“源-汇”生态过程的长江上游农业非点源污染.生态学报,2009,29(6):3271~3277

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  • 收稿日期:2008-03-20
  • 最后修改日期:2008-06-30
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