中国单位畜牧产品生态足迹分析
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国家自然科学基金资助项目(50809078);广州市属高校科技计划资助项目(62037);广州市科技计划资助项目(2007J1-C0491);广东省科技计划资助项目(2008B030302046)


The ecological footprint analysis of 1kg livestock product of China
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    摘要:

    中国畜牧业生产以农户散养为主要生产方式,一方面,它的工业化程度远低于发达国家,另一方面,又比其他发展中国家生产得更为精细。因此在计算单位畜牧产品生态足迹这一畜牧业生态影响评价中的重要参数时,必须考虑到我国牲畜口粮的特点。分析了我国牲畜口粮的成分,据此确定猪肉、禽肉和禽蛋足迹主要来自饲料中粮食,而牛肉、羊肉和牛奶足迹则来自草料和饲料中粮食。基于我国单位畜牧产品耗粮量和草地平均产肉产奶量,计算各种单位畜牧产品的生态足迹。结果表明,1kg禽肉足迹为7.6687gm2(全球平方m2,记作gm2)、禽蛋足迹为8.0106gm2、猪肉足迹为9.7859gm2或11.7326gm2、牛肉足迹为139704gm2、羊肉足迹为2320662gm2和牛奶足迹为37.2368 gm2。将计算结果与世界自然基金会(World Wildlife Fund,简称WWF)的结果进行了对比分析,并从料肉比、役畜、牲畜食草量和居民饮食结构等几个方面分析了二者之间差异的原因。

    Abstract:

    Famer scatter-feed is main production mode of China livestock husbandry. On the one hand, its industrilization level of livestock production is lower than developed countries. On the other hand, its production mode is more precise than other developing countries. Therefore, it is very necessary to calculate the ecological footprint of 1kg livestock production that is important parameter of livestock ecological impact evaluation according to the character of China livestock ration. Firstly, the author analyzed the composition of livestock ration. The results show that the footprint of pig meat, poultry meat and egg are come from the corn consumed in feedstuff and beef, mutton and milk come from the corn consumed in feedstuff and forage. And then, according to the corn consumption of 1kg livestock production and the mean yield of beef, mutton and milk from grassland, the ecological footprint of all kinds of 1kg livestock production were calculated. The results show that the footprint of 1kg poultry meat is 7.6687gm2, egg is 8.0106gm2, pig meat is 9.7859gm2 or 11.7326gm2, beef is 139.704gm2, mutton is 232.0662gm2 and milk is 37.2368 gm2. After this, these results were compared with WWF′s reserach result. In the end, the reasons of difference between this paper and WWF(World Wildlife Fund) were analyzed from the ratio of livestock production and feedstuff, draft animal, forage consumption of livestock and the food structure of habitant. It is concluded that the result of this paper is reasonable.

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谢鸿宇,陈贤生,杨木壮*,招华庆,赵美婵.中国单位畜牧产品生态足迹分析.生态学报,2009,29(6):3264~3270

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