甘肃莫高葡萄酒厂酵母种群的生态分布
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西北农林科技大学青年骨干支持计划资助项目\[01140301\];国家葡萄产业技术体系建设专项资助项目\[Z225020801\]; 国家“863”资助项目\[2007AA10Z314\]


The ecological population distribution of yeast in Mogao winery of Gansu Province
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    摘要:

    葡萄酿酒酵母的菌群组成和多样性对葡萄酒的化学成分和感观特性具有重要贡献,因此葡萄产区酵母菌的生态研究成为国外近年来的研究热点。应用WL营养琼脂培养基聚类分析、26S rRNA基因序列和5.8S-ITS区序列分析对甘肃莫高葡萄酒厂酵母菌群进行研究,共分离到葡萄酒相关酵母9属10个种:Saccharomyces cerevisiae、Issatchenkia orientalis、Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae、Pichia kluyveri var. kluyveri、Metschnikowia pulcherrima、Hanseniaspora uvarum、Cryptococcus magnus、Pichia fermentans、Rhodotorula mucilaginosa、Cryptococcus uzbekistanensis。不同生态条件下的菌群分布各有不同,在自然发酵过程中出现的菌种有M.pulcherrima, H.uvarum, P. kluyveri var. kluyveri和I. orientalis。发酵初期Metschnikowia pulcherrima和Hanseniaspora uvarum为启动发酵的主要菌群,3~4d后至发酵中期Saccharomyces cerevisiae开始出现并逐渐取代non-Saccharomyces,随后主导发酵结束。在酒厂设备表面分离到的菌种以Rhodotorula mucilaginosa和Hanseniaspora uvarum为主,分别占到34%和26%,其次C. magnus占16%,I. orientalis占12%,Pichia kluyveri var. kluyveri占12%。葡萄园土壤中分离到的菌群R. mucilaginosa占625%、C.magnus占21%,S. cerevisiae和Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae分别占12.5%和4%。

    Abstract:

    The population and biodiversity of wine-related yeast can contribute significantly to the chemical composition and the sensory characteristics of wine. Therefore, research on the yeast ecology of viticultural areas has become topic of interest in recent years. The population dynamics of yeast at Mogao winery in Gansu Province was analyzed using WL nutrient medium, 26S rRNA gene D1/D2 domain sequencing, and 5.8S-ITS sequencing. Ten different species belonging to nine different genera were identified, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia orientalis, Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae, Pichia kluyveri var. kluyveri, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Cryptococcus magnus, Pichia fermentans, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Cryptococcus uzbekistanensis. Yeast populations during spontaneous fermentation included M.pulcherrima, H.uvarum, P. kluyveri var. kluyveri and I. orientalis. Early fermentation was dominated by H. uvarum and M. pulcherrima but later in fermentation the population was replaced by S. cerevisiae, which finished the fermentation. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Hanseniaspora uvarum were predominant species presented on the surface of winery equipment, with proportions of 34% and 26% respectively. C. magnus (16%), I. orientalis (12%), Pichia kluyveri var. kluyveri (12%) were also found on winery surfaces. The species distribution found in soil consisted of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa at 62.5%, Cryptococcus magnus at 21%, S. cerevisiae at 12.5%, and R. kratochvilovae at 4%.

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徐艳文,刘爱国,刘延琳*,王泽举.甘肃莫高葡萄酒厂酵母种群的生态分布.生态学报,2009,29(6):3090~3095

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  • 收稿日期:2008-01-03
  • 最后修改日期:2008-06-27
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