珠江口大型底栖生物群落生态特征
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我国近海海洋生物与生态调查研究资助项目(908-ZC-Ⅰ-02);国家海洋局近岸海域生态环境重点实验室资助项目(200509)


Ecological characteristics of macrobenthic communities in Pearl River Estuary
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    摘要:

    2006年夏季和冬季分别对珠江口附近海域进行了大型底栖生物调查。调查共鉴定出大型底栖生物245种,多毛类最多(140 种)。其中夏季共获大型底栖生物153种,多毛类最多(91种);冬季共获大型底栖生物157 种,多毛类最多(93种)。夏冬季调查都有出现的生物种类65种。夏季珠江口大型底栖生物平均生物量为14.313 g/m2,平均丰度为205.3 ind/m2。冬季珠江口大型底栖生物平均生物量为13.077 g/m2,平均丰度为168.8 ind/m2。大型底栖生物种类数、生物量和丰度均呈现由河口内向外海增加的趋势。根据Bray-Curtis相似性系数矩阵数据对调查区域的大型底栖生物群落做了聚类(CLUSTER)和多维排序尺度(MDS)分析。结果显示,夏季可以划分为3类生物群落,冬季可以划分为5类生物群落。群落生物多样性分析结果显示,夏季珠江口北部和中部比南部生物多样性低;冬季珠江口北部生物多样性最低。利用丰度生物量比较曲线分析了大型底栖生物群落受干扰程度。结果表明,夏季大型底栖生物群落未受到干扰;冬季珠江口最北部生物群落Ⅰ处于中等干扰程度,其它生物群落未受干扰或受轻微干扰。海区大型底栖生物分布受珠江冲淡水的影响较为明显。

    Abstract:

    Macrobenthic communities were investigated in Pearl River Estuary in summer and winter 2006. A total of 245 species of macrofauna were identified in the two cruises (153 species in summer, 157 species in winter),belonging to fish,Echinodermata,Crustacea,Nemertea, Mollusca,Annelida (Polychaeta and Oligochaeta), Coelentera, Plathyhelminthes, Sipuncula and Echiura. Polychaeta had the highest species number which included 140 species in the two cruises, with 91 species in summer and 93 species in winter, respectively. Apionsoma trichocephala, Parheteromastus sp., Notomastus latericeus, Cossurella dimorpha, Magelona sp., Sternaspis scutata, Aglaophamus jeffreysii, Paraprionspio pinnata, Prionospio queenslandica and Amphioplus laevis are the main dominant species in the investigated area of Pearl River Estuary. Apionsoma trichocephala was the most abundant species, distributing over the south and central area of Pearl River Estuary. The average biomass and abundance of total macrofauna were 14.313g/m2 and 205.3ind/m2 in summer, and 13077g/m2 and 168.8 ind/m2 in winter, respectively. Species number, biomass and abundance increased from inside Pearl River estuary to the open sea. CLUSTER analysis and multi-dimentional scaling (MDS) analysis indicated that macrobenthic communities were divided into three communities in summer, and five in winter. The biodiversity was the lowest in north of Pearl River Estuary in summer and winter. ABC (Abundance/biomass comparison curve) method was used to determine the levels of disturbance that macrobenthic communities were under. Macrobenthic communities were undisturbed in summer. The north stations of macrobenthic community I were under moderately disturbance in winter while other communities in winter were undisturbed. Pearl River freshwater input was the most important factor to influnce the distribution of macrobenthic communities. Correlation analysis showed that salinity and macrobenthic species number and biodiversity index (H′, J′ and D) were significantly positively correlated in summer and winter.

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张敬怀*,高阳,方宏达,徐志斌.珠江口大型底栖生物群落生态特征.生态学报,2009,29(6):2989~2999

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  • 收稿日期:2008-03-26
  • 最后修改日期:2008-11-03
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