我国重要森林群落凋落物层土壤动物群落生态特征
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国家科技部社会公益研究专项资金项目部分资助(2000-177)


Characteristics of soil fauna community in forest floor at different climate zone, China
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    摘要:

    2001年9月~2002年9月,采用凋落袋分解法对我国不同气候带的8种重要森林群落,即黑龙江帽儿山的红松林(Pinus koraiensis)与针阔混交林(落叶松(Larix gmelinii)、白桦(Betula Platyphylla))、北京九龙山辽东栎林(Quercus liaotungensis)与针阔混交林(辽东栎、油松(Pinus tabulaeformis)),江西大岗山杉木林(Cunninghamia lanceolata)与针阔混交林(杉木、鹅掌楸(Liriodendron chinense))林以及广东鼎湖山常绿阔叶林(荷木(Schima superba)-厚壳桂(Cryptocarya chinensis))与针阔混交林(马尾松(Pinus massoniana)、荷木)凋落物层土壤动物群落进行研究。全年74次共采集森林凋落层土壤动物个体29123只,其中大型土壤动物4492只、中小型土壤动物24631只,隶属4门14纲30目,蜱螨类、弹尾类为凋落层的优势群落。非参数Kruskal-Wallis 方差分析表明,8种森林群落凋落层土壤动物群落组成差异性显著 (x2(7)=18.867, P<0.01),且帽儿山、九龙山与鼎湖山之间以及大岗山与鼎湖山阔叶林之间凋落层土壤动物群落组成存在显著性差异(P<0.001)。研究时段内,大型土壤动物月均数量和类群数量随着纬度升高而呈现明显的递减趋势;中小型土壤动物月均数量随纬度升高而基本呈升高的趋势。凋落层土壤动物月均数量、多样性、均匀性均差别显著(X2(66)=37.95、X2(66) = 26.38、X2(66) = 328.97, P<0.001)。多样性分析显示,鼎湖山凋落层土壤动物分布最丰富、分布最均匀;大岗山与鼎湖山典型森林群落凋落层土壤动物群落相似性最高,帽儿山与鼎湖山典型森林群落凋落层土壤动物群落相似性最低。灰色综合关联度分析表明,年均温度对土壤动物影响最大,有机质(表土)次之,土壤pH次于前两者,年均相对湿度影响最小,环境因子对主要土壤动物群落产生不同的影响。

    Abstract:

    Forest litter and soil fauna are important in forest ecosystem processes where they help to regulate nutrient dynamics and soil quality, and are useful bioindicators of ecosystem condition and change. To study the characteristics of soil fauna community in forest floor, we collected soil fauna from Sept. 2001 to Sept. 2002 using litterbags in 8 forests in different climate zone, including Korean Pine forest(Pinus koraiensis)and mixed forest (Larch(Larix gmelinii)and Birch(Betula Platyphylla))of Maoershan in Heilongjiang Province, Robur Forest(Quercus liaotungensis)and mixed forest(Robur(Quercus liaotungensis)and Chinese pine(Pinus tabulaeformis))in Beijing, Fir forest(Cunninghamia lanceolata)and mixed forest (Fir and Chinese Tulip Tree(Liriodendron chinense))of Dagangshan in Jiangxi Province and Monsoon evergreen broad\|leaved forest (Superba schima forest(Schima superba)and Chinese Cryptocarya(Cryptocarya chinensis))and pine and broad-leaf mixed forest(Masson pine(Pinus massoniana)and Superba schima ) of Dinghushan in Guangdong Province. We sampled 74 times and totally collected 29123 individuals of soil animal, belonging to 4 Phylums, 14 Classes, 30 Orders. Among them, 4492 individuals were macrofauna, 24631 were meso and microfauna. Mite and springtails were the most dominant species in the collection. The composition of soil fauna in forest floor were significantly impacted by the forest litter (x2(7) =18.867, P<0. 01). Significant difference in the composition of soil fauna were detected between forests in Maoershan and Dinghushan, between Jiulongsahn and Dinghushan, between Dagangshan and Dinghushan (P <0.001). Our data showed that both the monthly individual and group of soil macrofauna in average were significantly decreased as the latitude increased, while the average of monthly individual of soil meso and microfauna were usually increased as the latitude increased. The mean individual of soil fauna was significantly difference between months (X2(66)=37.95, P <0. 001), the difference between in diversity index and evenness index was significant monthly (X2(66) = 2638,X2(66) = 328.97,P<0.001). The highest community diversity and evenness of soil fauna was recorded in Dinghushan. The soil fauna in forest floor were most similarity between forests in Dagangshan and Dinghushan by similarity coefficients analysis, while the lowest similarity was found between forests in Maoershan and Dinghushan. Our data revealed that the mean annual temperature produced the most effect on soil fauna in forest floor, the second effect factor was the soil organic matter (surface soil), soil pH was the third, and annual relative moisture played minimum role in the soil fauna. The environment factors had different effect on the key soil fauna community.

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林英华,孙家宝,张夫道.我国重要森林群落凋落物层土壤动物群落生态特征.生态学报,2009,29(6):2938~2944

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