散养条件下华南虎不同年龄组行为节律的比较
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福建省科技厅重点科技资助项目(2004y026)


A comparison on behavioral rhythm of South China Tiger (Panthera tigris amoyensis) in different age groups
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    摘要:

    从2005年3月到2006年2月,应用全事件取样法和目标动物取样法对福建省上杭县梅花山华南虎繁殖与野化研究中心3个年龄组的9只散养华南虎(Panthera tigris amoyensis)进行了400余小时的行为观察,对行为发生的时间分配、日节律进行了研究。结果表明成体、亚成体和幼体的行为节律差异显著。时间分配上,3组别间运动行为、休息行为和摄食行为相关性不强,而社会行为、玩耍行为和其它行为差异显著。日行为节律上,运动行为的发生总是伴随着社会行为和摄食行为,尤其是成年虎,但成年虎的运动行为中刻板行为占了很大比例;年龄等级序列在日节律中表现为年轻个体的社会行为受压抑;摄食行为的发生明显受人为控制;幼体玩耍行为的发生与摄食行为和其它组社会行为的发生趋势一致。曲线特征上,成体组曲线整体平滑,而亚成体和幼体曲线则变化较为剧烈。研究认为散养条件使虎个体还原了部分关键的野生虎行为,但人为干扰与空间不足仍对野化产生一定的影响。

    Abstract:

    During March 2005 to February 2006, we conducted behavioral observations on 9 South China Tigers (5♀, 4♂) in Meihuashan South China Tiger Breeding and Re-wilding Research Center, Fujian Province. Tigers were grouped by age and observed for more than 400 hours. We applied all-occurrence and focal-animal sampling methods to study their time budgets and daily rhythms in semi-captive circumstances. We found that daily behaviors were significantly different among the breeding group, the juvenile group and the cub group. The time budget study showed that, there were no statistical inter-group relationships in moving, resting and feeding behaviors, however, there were differences in observed social, playing and other behaviors. Daily rhythm analysis showed movement behaviors usually co-occurred with social and feeding behaviors, especially in the breeding group. However, results also showed that stereotypic behavior makes up a large proportion of breeders′ movement behaviors. We observed limited social behaviors in cub and juvenile groups during time periods of peak behavior for the breeding group, which provides evidence for an age hierarchy. We found that the occurrence of feeding behaviors was largely controlled by humans. During feeding time the cub group reaches the peak of their playing behavior, often exhibiting more play behavior when compared to feeding behavior. The daily rhythm curves were generally smooth in the breeding group, while in juveniles and cubs there were fluctuations. Results showed that the semi-captive circumstances allowed recovery of some important behaviors that are also observed in wild tigers, however, the human interference and spatial limitations could inhibit the re-wilding of this sub-species.

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曹青,胡德夫*,陆军,黄兆峰,傅文源.散养条件下华南虎不同年龄组行为节律的比较.生态学报,2009,29(6):2767~2774

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