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罗燕,乔玉辉,吴文良.东北有机及常规大豆对环境影响的生命周期评价.生态学报,2011,31(23):7170~7178 本文二维码信息
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东北有机及常规大豆对环境影响的生命周期评价
Environment impact assessment of organic and conventional soybean production with LCA method in China Northeast Plain
投稿时间:2010-10-26  修订日期:2011-05-30
DOI:
关键词生命周期评价  有机大豆  常规大豆  环境影响
Key Wordslife cycle assessment  organic soybean  conventional soybean  environmental impact
基金项目湖北省科技攻关项目(2006AA201C73)
作者单位E-mail
罗燕 中国农业大学资源与环境学院, 北京 100094  
乔玉辉 中国农业大学资源与环境学院, 北京 100094 qiaoyh@cau.edu.cn 
吴文良 中国农业大学资源与环境学院, 北京 100094  
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摘要:
选择我国主要有机出口农产品之一——大豆作为研究对象,采用生命周期评价、DNDC模型、实地调研等方法建立大豆生命周期资源消耗和环境排放清单,分析比较了出口型有机大豆、国内消费型有机大豆以及国内消费型常规大豆的生命周期环境影响。结果表明:3种不同生产消费型大豆生命周期中资源消耗、酸化以及全球变暖对综合环境影响贡献最明显,基本上占到综合环境影响评价的30%左右,而富营养化和生态毒性的贡献率较低,小于10%。从生命周期的不同阶段分析,3种消费模式的大豆其运输阶段对于各分类环境影响的贡献率最大,都在50%以上,对资源消耗的贡献率更是在80%以上。从2种不同的生产模式看无论是全球变暖、酸化、资源消耗还是生态毒性都是有机大豆的环境影响综合指数小于常规大豆,对环境产生的负面影响较小。综合比较3种不同生产消费型大豆,国内消费的有机大豆生命周期综合环境影响最小,其环境影响综合指数比常规大豆的减少31%。但是出口有机大豆由于出口使运输距离延长,其生命周期综合环境影响最大。因此,环境管理关键是提倡有机产品本地消费以缩短运输距离,或者采用环保型能源以减少环境排放。
Abstract:
The environmental impacts of the growing global trade with organic products during both production and transport have gained increasing attention. One of main organic export products in China namely soybean was studied using the life cycle assessment method, the DNDC model and on site survey in the northeastern region to quantify the impact of resource depletion and environmental impact. The environment hotspots in the life cycle for three different types of soybean production were identified: Exported Organic Soybean (EOS), Locally-consumed Organic Soybean (LOS) and Locally-consumed Conventional Soybean (LCS).
Data for agricultural inputs were obtained directly from 29 organic and 14 conventional soybean farmers who filled in questionnaires for the growing season 2006-2007. Data on the transportation and fertilizers were obtained from the retailers and the trade company. For the DNDC model, data for soil conditions and climate were obtained from the local government, own analysis selected samples and from the organic trade company. This study focused on global warming, resource depletion, eutrophication, acidification and ecological toxicity as impact categories for LCIA. Normalization references for global warming, eutrophication and acidification are specific for China whereas normalization references for resource depletion and ecological toxicity are global due to lack of emission data for those two categories. Expert judgment was used to get the weighting factors.
The results showed that resource depletion, acidification and global warming potential accounted for a considerable fraction of total environment impact with about 30% for each item while eutrophication and eco-toxicity only accounted for less than 10% respectively. EOS showed the highest value for energy consumption compared to LOS and LCS. Transportation contributed the most and the fraction in EOS can reach as high as 95%, but it was also considerable for LCS and LOS. Besides, production of fertilizer depleted 11% of the resource for LCS.The EOS and LCS showed almost the same acidification potential followed by LOS. SO2 emitted from transport stage was the main reason for this, which was due to energy consumption and burning of fuel. During production, conventional soybeans emitted 716 gSO2-equiv./t compared to 590 gSO2-equiv./t from organic soybeans mainly due to more machinery hours in the field.The agricultural input production stage emitted 788 g SO2-equiv./t for conventional soybeans, especially for the production of phosphorous fertilizer. EOS had the highest global warming potential and locally-consuming soybeans minimized carbon dioxide emission. The carbon dioxide emission from transport ranged from 784 kg CO2-equiv./t to 1477 kg CO2-equiv./t which accountted for a large fraction in the life cycle.Eutrophication potential of LCS was 1.8 and 1.4 times greater than that from LOS and EOS.The agricultural input production stage was the most significant and contributes to 55% of the total amount. In the farming stage, organic soybeans emitted almost 640 g NO3-equiv/t which was greater than conventional soybeans because of higher input of N. In LCS, ecological toxicity potential accounts for 8% of environmental impact.Considering all the factors for environment impact, LOS was most environment-friendly option which can reduce the environmental impacts by 33% and 31% compared to EOS and LCS.Locally produced organic soybeans consumed in China could reduce CO2 emission and energy consumption by 47% and 33% respectively. This could also decrease acidification and eutrophication risk by 19% and 46% compared to EOS and LCS. LOS would therefore not only decrease resource depletion, but also met the requirements for pollution reduction. Thus, locally consumed organic products are environmentally favorable.
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