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赵军,杨凯,邰俊,单福征.区域景观格局与地表水环境质量关系研究进展.生态学报,2011,31(11):3180~3189 本文二维码信息
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区域景观格局与地表水环境质量关系研究进展
Review of the relationship between regional landscape pattern and surface water quality
投稿时间:2010-02-10  修订日期:2010-12-31
DOI:
关键词景观格局  水质指标  梯度分析  非点源污染  不透水面
Key Wordslandscape pattern  water quality index  gradient analysis  non-point pollution  impervious area
基金项目国家自然科学基金资助项目(40871016);上海市科委科技发展基金项目(09DZ1200901);上海高校选拔培养优秀青年教师科研专项基金(2009);上海大学创新基金项目(2009);上海市重点学科三期(S30109)
作者单位E-mail
赵军 上海大学环境科学与工程系, 上海 200072;华东师范大学资源与环境科学学院, 上海市城市化生态过程与生态恢复重点实验室, 上海 200062  
杨凯 华东师范大学资源与环境科学学院, 上海市城市化生态过程与生态恢复重点实验室, 上海 200062 kyang@re.ecnu.edu.cn 
邰俊 华东师范大学资源与环境科学学院, 上海市城市化生态过程与生态恢复重点实验室, 上海 200062  
单福征 上海大学环境科学与工程系, 上海 200072  
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摘要:
区域景观格局对地表水环境具有重要影响,20世纪70年代以来国外学者对区域景观格局与地表水水质之间的关系开展了大量研究。在系统梳理景观格局与水质关系的研究思路和技术方法基础上,综合国内外文献探讨了水化学离子、常规污染物、营养物、重金属、有机物、水生生物,直至当前的河流健康等各类水环境指标对景观格局的响应程度,以及景观格局影响水环境的尺度效应问题。当前研究存在划定流域边界未能严格避免流域嵌套及土地利用空间自相关、选择景观格局变量尚未充分重视空间结构和水文地貌因素、数据分析技术多限于半定量分析等问题,尝试提出了相应的解决方案。提出国内研究的发展方向,指出在关注研究区域的流域边界是否明确和点源污染是否得到控制两个理论前提基础上,进一步根据非点源污染物在景观格局中的累积和迁移转化行为特征,进行相应的土地利用景观分类将是十分重要和迫切的基础性工作,提出了将景观格局与过程关系理论应用于城市面源污染调控的关键科学问题,包括非点源与目标水体的空间位置关系、不透水面和透水面的空间格局关系、区域不透垫面比例是否存在阈值,以及设置透水面的最佳空间尺度等。
Abstract:
Landscape pattern has a great impact on the surface water quality. Many studies have focused on the relationship between the two aspects since 1970s, especially from the appearance of the landscape ecology method which remarkably promoted the studies after 1990s. This paper firstly reviewed the research theory and method in the related studies in the recent 30 years in abroad and home. It is shown that the landscape pattern metrics in the studies has developed from qualitative analysis, land use configuration, land use spatial pattern, and currently to an integration of landscape pattern and hydro-geomorghy structure, while the focus of surface water quality indices has expanded from hydro-chemical ions, normal pollutants, nutrients, heavy metals, organic pollutants, and currently to aquatic organisms and stream health as well. In the field of hydro-chemical ions, it is found that only qualitative not quantitive method were used just to compare the ion concentrations in different land use area, which may be caused by the lack of landscape theory and GIS technique; In the field of the pollutants, there is an interesting finding that physical indicators such as water temperature, total suspended solid (TSS), conductivity and pH may be more sensitive to the change of landscape pattern than the chemical indicators; In the field of nutrients, it is revealed that there is often an notable difference between N and P in their response to landscape variation, more usually, N is more sensitive than P because of their different source form human activities; and in the field of aquatic organisms and stream health, it is emphasized that the impervious area index should be used as a key environmental indicator, in which the threshold effect are of great necessity to be discussed, which often shows that biological indicators are more intended to have a lower threshold than the chemical and hydrological in their response to the change or variation of landscape pattern. Great attention has been paid to the problem of scale effect, however, the results are still confused in the problem of what is an effective scale would represent the most variation of water quality data. Critical techniques were summarized, such as step-wise multi-regression, Pearson relationship, gradient analysis, and model estimation. Some issues are put forward such as (1) watershed embedding and spatial auto-correlation in the delineation of watershed boundary, (2) the spatial configuration and hydro-morphology was often ignored in the selection of landscape metrics, and (3) the qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis method was mostly choused in the data analysis, and corresponding strategies were given. Finally, the prospect of domestic studies is tentatively suggested, which should be based on two theoretical premises, namely whether the watershed boundary could be clearly defined and whether the point pollution in the study area was completely controlled, and the most important is how to define a nice landscape classification system according to the cumulation and transformation activity rules of non-point pollutions in different landscape arrangement. Some key scientific points were proposed for the application of landscape pattern and process theory to urban non-point pollution control, which including how far is the non-point source to the target water, the spatial pattern and threshold of impervious area, and what is the effective scale to setting the pervious area like wetland and riparian buffer zone.
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