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朱捷缘,卢慧婷,王慧芳,严岩,唐立娜.汶川地震重灾区恢复期生态系统健康评价.生态学报,2018,38(24):9001~9011 本文二维码信息
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汶川地震重灾区恢复期生态系统健康评价
Ecosystem health assessment of the Wenchuan earthquake hard-hit disaster areas during the recovery period
投稿时间:2018-08-08  修订日期:2018-11-05
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201808081684
关键词汶川地震  生态系统健康  生态系统服务  VOR模型  恢复期
Key WordsWenchuan earthquake  ecosystem health  ecosystem service  VOR model  recovery period
基金项目国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0502102)
作者单位E-mail
朱捷缘 中国科学院城市环境研究所, 城市环境与健康重点实验室, 厦门 361021
中国科学院大学, 北京 100049 
 
卢慧婷 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
中国科学院生态环境研究中心, 城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085 
 
王慧芳 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
中国科学院生态环境研究中心, 城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085 
 
严岩 中国科学院生态环境研究中心, 城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085  
唐立娜 中国科学院城市环境研究所, 城市环境与健康重点实验室, 厦门 361021 lntang@iue.ac.cn 
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摘要:
2008年的汶川地震对区域生态系统造成了显著破坏。为了解震后区域生态系统恢复情况,从而为震区生态恢复策略提供科学依据,利用遥感数据研究了四川省汶川地震重灾区39区县2010-2015年的生态系统类型及活力变化,并运用InVEST模型评估了震区土壤保持、水源涵养、生境质量等生态系统服务能力,最后基于VOR模型并耦合关键生态系统服务定量评估了震区生态系统健康状况。结果表明:2010-2015年间震区湿地和城镇面积有所增加,植被和农田有不同程度的减少,但是Ⅹ-Ⅺ地震烈度等级区域内森林面积增加1309.77 hm2;震区生态系统活力均值明显上升,Ⅹ-Ⅺ地震烈度级别区生态系统活力增幅最明显,分别为14.84%、12.47%;水源涵养能力稍有降低,减幅0.46%,土壤保持服务增幅1.26%,生境质量指数无明显变化;生态系统健康指数(EHI)均值有小幅度提升,从0.6761上升到0.6853,增幅1.36%,Ⅹ-Ⅺ地震烈度级别区EHI增幅比其他地区明显,增幅分别为4.01%、3.48%,表明受灾最严重的地区生态恢复比较显著。但是,由于震区重建开发导致局部区域如宝兴、汉源、石棉、涪城、广汉、汶川西北部和震区北部部分区域EHI下降。未来应继续保持Ⅹ-Ⅺ地震烈度级别区良好的生态恢复趋势,同时也要重视震区中部平原地区的基本农田保护和南部、北部地区的自然生态空间保护工作,维持震区生态系统健康和区域可持续发展。
Abstract:
The Wenchuan earthquake in 2008 caused considerable damage to ecosystems in China. The objective of this study was to better understand the ecological recovery of the Wenchuan earthquake hard-hit disaster areas and provide a scientific basis for the development of an ecological recovery strategy. In this study, remote sensing data were used to analyze the changes in ecosystems in in the Wenchuan earthquake hard-hit areas from 2010 to 2015, including 39 districts and counties in Sichuan Province, China; furthermore, concurrent changes in water conservation, soil retention, and habitat quality were also assessed using the InVEST model. The spatial patterns and changes in ecosystem health in the Wenchuan earthquake hard-hit areas were then evaluated quantitatively using the VOR model coupled with key ecosystem services. The main conclusions were as follows:(1) the area covered by wetlands and urban lands in the Wenchuan earthquake hard-hit areas increased from 2010 to 2015, whereas that covered by vegetations and cultivated lands decreased, except for the forested environments, in areas hit by the magnitude Ⅹ-Ⅺ earthquake, which instead increased by 1309.77 hectares; (2) the mean vigor of ecosystems in the Wenchuan earthquake hard-hit areas increased obviously, and the most significant increases in mean vigor occurred in areas hit by magnitude Ⅹ and Ⅺ earthquakes, where vigor increased by 14.84% and 12.47%, respectively; (3) overall, the water conservation capacity in the Wenchuan earthquake hard-hit areas decreased slightly by 0.46%, whereas soil retention increased by 1.26%, and the change in habitat quality was relatively small; (4) the mean ecosystem health index (EHI) of Wenchuan earthquake hard-hit areas increased modestly (by 1.36%) from 0.6761 to 0.6853. Notably, the increase in EHI in the areas hit by magnitude Ⅹ and Ⅺ earthquakes were more significant than those in other areas, with increases of 4.01% and 3.48%, respectively, which indicated that the ecological recovery was most remarkable in the most severely damaged areas. It is worth noting that in some regions, including Baoxing, Hanyuan, Shimian, Fucheng, Guanghan, northwestern Wenchuan, and the northern parts of the study area, the EHI instead showed a downward trend owing to the reconstruction and development of the Wenchuan earthquake hard-hit areas. Thus, to improve the ecosystem health and sustainable regional development of the Wenchuan earthquake hard-hit areas, the good ecological recovery trend observed in the areas hit by magnitude Ⅹ and Ⅺ earthquakes should be maintained. Simultaneously, more focus should be on the protection of basic farmland in the central plain area and natural ecological protection work in the southern and northern regions.
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