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靳甜甜,卢敏,刘国华,彭期冬,冯时.拉萨河干流城市段水环境容量.生态学报,2018,38(24):8955~8963 本文二维码信息
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拉萨河干流城市段水环境容量
Water environmental capacity of Lhasa River in urban sections and its influencing factors
投稿时间:2018-06-27  修订日期:2018-12-06
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201806271413
关键词拉萨河  水环境容量  化学需氧量  MIKE11
Key WordsLhasa River  water environmental capacity  chemical oxygen demand  MIKE11
基金项目国家重点研发计划(2016YFC0502103);西藏自治区重点科技计划项目(Z2016C01G01/08)
作者单位E-mail
靳甜甜 中国水利水电科学研究院, 北京 100038  
卢敏 兰州大学资源环境学院, 兰州 730000  
刘国华 中国科学院生态环境研究中心, 北京 100085 ghliu@rcees.ac.cn 
彭期冬 中国水利水电科学研究院, 北京 100038  
冯时 中国水利水电科学研究院, 北京 100038  
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摘要:
拉萨河流域是西藏自治区的政治、经济和文化中心,拉萨河生态环境保护状况对维持流域生态安全至关重要。近年来,拉萨河流域内经济快速发展,工业废水和生活污水排放量增加,成为威胁河流水质的潜在因素。明确拉萨河河流水质现状,核定水域的水环境承载力,对于未来拉萨河河流管理和经济规划均具有重要意义。基于河流断面、流量、水位和水质现场监测,污染物排放、水文和水质历史资料收集等工作,利用MIKE11模型,对拉萨河城市段干流水动力和水质进行了模拟,依据国家标准和规范计算了拉萨市干流河段水环境容量。计算结果表明:(1)拉萨市干流河段化学需氧量COD容量较小,氨氮NH4+-N具有较大容量:上游达孜断面按照地表水Ⅱ类水体要求的浓度标准限值输入时,拉萨市干流段COD容量约为3461 t/a、NH4+-N容量约为602 t/a;若上游达孜断面按照2017年5月1日-2017年5月30日连续30日测定月均值输入,则拉萨市干流河段COD容量约为797 t/a、NH4+-N容量约为1145 t/a。(2)对拉萨市干流河段水环境容量影响较大的因素主要有气候变化、水利水电工程运行调度、上游来水水质和河流自净能力:2014年以后拉萨河流域的暖干化趋势,很可能带来枯水期流量降低,从而改变水环境容量计算中的设计水文条件,使水环境容量降低;拉萨河沿岸灌区取水,旁多水利枢纽、直孔电站运行调度也是影响下游水环境容量的重要因素;流域内草甸、湿地生态系统有机质和养分在气候暖干化背景下加速矿化,可能是造成上游水体中COD浓度较高的重要原因。(3)为加强拉萨河流域水环境管理,应加强上游草甸和湿地水环境效应监测、完善城市污水处理厂及配套设施。
Abstract:
Lhasa River basin is the political, economic, and cultural center of the Tibet Autonomous Region, and the state of ecological protection for Lhasa River is of vital importance to maintain the ecological security of the basin. With rapid economic development in recent years, the discharge of industrial wastewater and domestic sewage into the river has increased rapidly, and is becoming a potential risk to river water quality. Ascertaining river water quality and the water environmental capacity of surface water is of significant importance in river basin management and economic development blueprints. Based on on-site monitoring (river section, flow, water level, and water quality) and the collection of historic data (pollutant emission, hydrology, and water quality), this paper used the MIKE11 model to simulate the hydrodynamics and water quality of the mainstream through the Lhasa City. According to national standards and norms, the water environmental capacity was calculated. The results showed that:(1) The studied mainstream had a low Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of about 3461 t/a and a high ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N) concentration of about 602 t/a when the COD and concentration of NH4+-N in inflow water in the upstream Dagzê section was equal to that of Class Ⅱ-limited surface water; the studied mainstream had a COD of about 797 t/a and a NH4+-N concentration of about 1145 t/a when the COD and concentration of NH4+-N in inflow water in the upstream Dagzê section was equal to the monthly mean from May 1, 2017 until May 30, 2017. (2) The major factors affecting the environmental capacity of the studied mainstream included climate change, hydro projects, upstream water quality, and self-purification capacity. The climatic warming-drying trend in Lhasa River basin after 2014 was an important factor in the reduction of mainstream runoff during the dry season, which led to the decrease in environmental capacity affected directly by a lower flow. Water intake for irrigation along the Lhasa River and the operation of the Pangduo Hydraulic Project and Zhikong Hydropower Station were also important factors affecting the downstream water environmental capacity. The accelerated mineralization of organic matter and nutrients in the ecosystem of meadows and wetlands with the background of a warming-drying climate might lead to a high COD in the upstream water. (3) For a better management of the water environment in Lhasa River basin, the effects of upstream meadows and wetlands on the water environment should be monitored, and urban sewage treatment plants and supporting facilities should be improved.
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