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毛舒欣,沈园,邓红兵.西南地区少数民族传统生计变迁与农户生计安全.生态学报,2018,38(24):8873~8878 本文二维码信息
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西南地区少数民族传统生计变迁与农户生计安全
Changes in traditional rural minority livelihoods and household livelihood security in southwest China
投稿时间:2018-05-31  修订日期:2018-12-18
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201805311202
关键词少数民族  可持续生计  生计安全  生态安全  民族文化
Key Wordsminority  sustainable livelihood  livelihood security  ecological security  ethnic culture
基金项目国家重点研发计划(2016YFC0502106)
作者单位E-mail
毛舒欣 中国科学院生态环境研究中心, 城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085
中国科学院大学, 北京 100049 
 
沈园 中国科学院生态环境研究中心, 城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085
中国科学院大学, 北京 100049 
 
邓红兵 中国科学院生态环境研究中心, 城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085 denghb@rcees.ac.cn 
摘要点击次数 201
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摘要:
少数民族农户生计及其安全对于民族地区的生态建设、区域发展和文化保护有着重要意义。在总结中国西南地区少数民族传统生计及其特点、传统生计变迁及其主要驱动力的基础上,主要从环境行为/生态后果、文化适应两方面分析了生计变迁的影响。资源配置家庭化是少数民族生计变迁后的一个显著特点,因此对于农户生计的研究应受到重视。当前针对农户生计的研究主要围绕可持续生计分析框架和农户生计安全而开展。农户生计安全是农村社会可持续发展的微观基础,与可持续生计密切相关。在考虑西南地区生态安全的背景下,生态脆弱性和生计后果是相关研究需要重点关注的内容,而针对少数民族生计的研究还需要突出民族文化的特点和作用。民族文化资本化是保护民族文化、发展民族地区经济的有效途径,将民族文化作为生计资本并纳入可持续生计分析框架将是对西南少数民族生计研究的有效补充。
Abstract:
Rural livelihoods and livelihood security play important roles in ecological construction, regional development, and culture protection in minority areas. This paper summarizes traditional minority livelihoods, their characteristics, changes, and the driving forces behind the changes in southwest China. The impact of livelihood change was analyzed from aspects of environmental behavior/ecological outcomes and cultural adaptations. The familization of resource allocation is a significant feature of minority livelihood change; thus, rural household livelihood studies should be valued. Currently, rural household livelihood studies have been mainly focused on the sustainable livelihood framework and rural livelihood security. Rural livelihood security is a microfoundation of rural society sustainable development, and is closely related to sustainable livelihoods. In the context of the regional ecological security of southwest China, ecological vulnerability and livelihood outcomes should be valued, and the characteristics and functions of ethnic cultures should be highlighted in minority livelihood studies. The capitalization of ethnic cultures is an effective approach to protect minority cultures and promote economic development in minority areas. Treating ethnic culture as one kind of livelihood asset and integrating it into the sustainable livelihood framework would be an effective supplement to studies on southwest minority livelihoods.
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