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陈利顶,景永才,孙然好.城市生态安全格局构建:目标、原则和基本框架.生态学报,2018,38(12):4101~4108 本文二维码信息
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城市生态安全格局构建:目标、原则和基本框架
Urban eco-security pattern construction: targets, principles and basic framework
投稿时间:2018-02-27  修订日期:2018-05-07
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201802270395
关键词生态安全  城市生态安全  安全格局构建  生态系统服务
Key Wordseco-security  urban eco-security  eco-security pattern design  ecosystem services
基金项目国家重点研发计划重点专项(2016YFC0503000);国家自然科学基金项目(41590841)
作者单位E-mail
陈利顶 中国科学院生态环境研究中心 城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085
中国科学院大学, 北京 100049 
liding@rcees.ac.cn 
景永才 中国科学院生态环境研究中心 城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085
中国科学院大学, 北京 100049 
 
孙然好 中国科学院生态环境研究中心 城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085  
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摘要:
随着人口增长和经济快速发展,城市化已经成为人类社会发展的必然趋势。快速城市化必将导致生态用地流失、生态系统服务下降和环境健康风险加剧,由此影响到城市生态安全。尽管生态安全的概念已经为社会广泛接受,但对生态安全的内涵和如何构建生态安全格局仍然缺乏统一认识。在分析生态安全内涵、生态安全概念辨析和生态安全格局构建基本原则基础上,结合城市生态系统特点,提出了城市生态安全格局构建的目的、基本原则和基本框架。认为城市生态安全格局构建是一个涉及多尺度的区域性、综合性问题,除了要遵循生态安全格局构建的一般性原则外,还必须考虑以下原则:以人为本原则、流域适应原则、区域协调原则和有限目标原则。同时,需要重点关注宏观与微观尺度之间的关系协调、城市内部与外部之间的关系协调、理想与现实目标之间的权衡、人类生存需求与生态服务需求之间的权衡关系。通过城市生态安全格局构建,需要实现以下目标:控制城市化过程中出现的问题、维持城市地区正常的物质循环与代谢功能、维持城市生态系统健康运行与可持续发展、保证城市人居环境健康和居民的正常生活,以及满足现有城市居民可预见时期内生态服务需求。从景观、城市和区域三个尺度上,分析了城市生态安全格局构建需要面对的实体、解决的问题和实现的目标。
Abstract:
With the rapid growth of population and the rapid development of economic in China, urbanization has become an inevitable trend in the development of human society. Inevitably, the rapid urbanization has caused the loss of ecological land, the decline of ecosystem services and the risks of environmental health, thereout, all the facts has been influencing the eco-security of the urban. Although the concept of ecological security has been widely accepted by the society, people still lack of unified understanding of the connotation of ecological security and how to build an ecological security pattern. In this paper, combining the characteristics of urban ecosystem, the objectives, basic principles and framework for the construction of urban ecological security pattern are put forward based on analyzing the connotation of ecological security, distinguishing the concept of ecological security and building the basic principles and objectives of the urban eco-security pattern. The construction of urban ecological security pattern is a multi-scale regional comprehensive problem. In addition to following the basic principle of the construction of the eco-security pattern, the following four aspects should be considered: the people-oriented principle, the watershed adaptation principle, the regional coordination principle and the limited goal principle. At the same time, it is necessary to pay close attention to the coordination between the macro and micro scales, the coordination between the urban areas and the nonmetropolitan areas, the trade-off between the ideal and the realistic goal, and the trade-off between the needs of human existence and the needs of ecological services. The following goals must be achieved by the construction of urban eco-security pattern: a) Solving the problems in the process of urbanization. b) Maintaining the normal material circulation and metabolism in urban areas. c) Maintaining the healthy operation and sustainable development of urban ecosystems. d) Ensuring the urban residential environment health and normal life of residents. e) Meeting the ecological service needs of the urban residents in the foreseeable period. At last, we analyzed the entities, problems and goals in the construction of urban security pattern from the three spatial scales of landscape, city and region.
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