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高惠,滕丽微,汪洋,王继飞,刘振生.阿拉善马鹿(Cervus alashanicus)生境适宜性评价.生态学报,2017,37(11):3926~3931 本文二维码信息
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阿拉善马鹿(Cervus alashanicus)生境适宜性评价
Habitat assessment of red deer (Cervus alashanicus) in the Helan Mountains, China
投稿时间:2016-03-25  修订日期:2016-12-15
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201603250534
关键词阿拉善马鹿  生境评价  最大熵模型  贺兰山
Key WordsCervus alashanicus  habitat suitability assessment  maximum entropy model  Helan Mountains
基金项目中央高校基本科研业务费资助项目(2572014CA03,DL13EA01);国家自然科学基金资助项目(31372221)
作者单位E-mail
高惠 东北林业大学野生动物资源学院, 哈尔滨 150040  
滕丽微 东北林业大学野生动物资源学院, 哈尔滨 150040
国家林业局野生动物保护学重点开放实验室, 哈尔滨 150040 
 
汪洋 东北林业大学野生动物资源学院, 哈尔滨 150040  
王继飞 宁夏贺兰山国家级自然保护区管理局, 银川 750021  
刘振生 东北林业大学野生动物资源学院, 哈尔滨 150040
国家林业局野生动物保护学重点开放实验室, 哈尔滨 150040 
zhenshengliu@163.net 
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摘要:
阿拉善马鹿(Cervus alashanicus)目前仅分布于贺兰山地区,对该物种进行生境适宜性的评价和分析是物种有效保护的前提和基础。2013-2014年通过样线调查及巡山资料查询,确定阿拉善马鹿出现位点86个,结合13种环境变量数据,利用最大熵(maximum entropy,MaxEnt)模型,并根据最大约登指数划定适宜与不适宜生境区,对贺兰山地区阿拉善马鹿的生境适宜性进行评价。ROC曲线(receiver operating characteristic curve)检测证明模型预测精度较高,研究结果表明:阿拉善马鹿主要分布于贺兰山东坡的中部和南部,以及西坡的中北部,适宜生境面积为667.87 km2,占研究区域面积的18.2%;矿区、坡度和海拔是影响阿拉善马鹿分布的最主要环境变量,矿区对阿拉善马鹿的影响最大,建议管理部门加大对此人为干扰的管控力度,控制和减少现有矿区的规模,以促进该种群的发展。
Abstract:
Cervus alashanicus only occurs in the Helan Mountains. Evaluating the habitat suitability of Cervus alashanicus is the premise and foundation of effective protection for this population. We used a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and the Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) model to predict habitat suitability for Cervus alashanicus in the Helan Mountains. The data needed in this research, included occurrence records of Cervus alashanicus and environmental factors. We collected 86 GPS coordinates for Cervus alashanicus occurrance obtained by line transect surveys and patrol data from the Helan Mountain National Nature Reserve from 2013 to 2014. Environmental factors were grouped into three categories, including topographic data (elevation, slope, and aspect) extracted from the Digital Elevation Model (DEM), six vegetation factors extracted from the Thematic Mapper (TM) image of the Helan Mountains (2007), and water resources and human interference factors, including roads, mining, and forest protection points extracted from the 1 : 50000 vector maps of the Helan Mountains. GIS was used to produce the data needed in the model. The distribution of Cervus alashanicus was predicted using the model of MaxEnt. The area under the curve (AUC) values of a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was used to assess the accuracy of the MaxEnt model, and the Youden Index was applied to determine the threshold value for habitat classification in the MaxEnt model. The simulated habitat was divided into two categories, including suitable and unsuitable habitat using a threshold value of 0.31. Finally, the distribution map of habitat suitability of Cervus alashanicus in the Helan Mountains was generated from the data and software, and the AUC value for training data and test data were 0.956 and 0.898 respectively, which indicated that the result of the assessment was excellent. The results showed that suitable habitat for Cervus alashanicus was primarily distributed in the central and southern regions of the Ningxia Helan Mountain National Nature Reserve (eastern part) and to a lesser extent in the northern region of the Inner-Mongolia Helan Mountain National Nature Reserve (western part), with a total area of 667.87 km2, accounting for 18.2% of the total assessment area. Most northern areas of Helan Mountains were unsuitable habitat for Cervus alashanicus because of lower precipitation and more mining. Jackknife tests and the contribution of environmental variables indicated that mining (30.4%), slope (26%), altitude (10.8%), and aspect (8.4%) were the main factors affecting habitat selection of Cervus alashanicus, followed by the forest protection points (5.7%), grasslands (4.2%), roads (4.2%), shrubs (4%), alpine meadows (3.8%), broad-leaved forests (1.3%), and water resources (0.9%). Coniferous forest and desert had little effect on the habitat selection of Cervus alashanicus. The response curves showed that habitat suitability increased gradually with the increase of distance from mine and road, and decreased when the slop was more than 30°. Results from our study suggested that mining was the most serious human interference for the Cervus alashanicus. Managers need to take more regulatory actions to protect the suitable habitat areas of Cervus alashanicus in order to promote the conservation of this population.
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