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耿静,程淑兰,方华军,于贵瑞,徐敏杰,王磊,李晓玉,司高月,何舜.氮素类型和剂量对寒温带针叶林土壤N2O排放的影响.生态学报,2017,37(2):395~404 本文二维码信息
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氮素类型和剂量对寒温带针叶林土壤N2O排放的影响
The effects of types and doses of nitrogen addition on soil N2O flux in a cold-temperate coniferous forest, northern China
投稿时间:2015-08-04  修订日期:2016-05-10
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201508041639
关键词大气氮沉降  土壤N2O通量  氮素有效性  主控因子  北方森林
Key Wordsatmospheric N deposition  soil N2O flux  N availability  controlling factors  boreal forest
基金项目国家自然科学基金项目(41471212,31470558,31290221,31130009,31290222);国家重点基础研究发展计划项目(2012CB417103);中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所“秉维”优秀青年人才基金项目(2011RC202);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA05050600)
作者单位E-mail
耿静 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 生态系统观测与模拟重点实验室, 北京 100101
中国科学院大学资源与环境学院, 北京 100049 
 
程淑兰 中国科学院大学资源与环境学院, 北京 100049  
方华军 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 生态系统观测与模拟重点实验室, 北京 100101 fanghj@igsnrr.ac.cn 
于贵瑞 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 生态系统观测与模拟重点实验室, 北京 100101  
徐敏杰 中国科学院大学资源与环境学院, 北京 100049  
王磊 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 生态系统观测与模拟重点实验室, 北京 100101  
李晓玉 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 生态系统观测与模拟重点实验室, 北京 100101  
司高月 中国科学院大学资源与环境学院, 北京 100049  
何舜 中国科学院大学资源与环境学院, 北京 100049  
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摘要:
大气氮沉降输入会增加森林生态系统氮素有效性,进而改变土壤N2O产生与排放,然而有关不同氮素离子(氧化态NO3--N与还原态NH4+-N)沉降对土壤N2O排放的影响知之甚少。以大兴安岭寒温带针叶林为研究对象,构建了3种类型(NH4Cl、KNO3、NH4NO3)和4个施氮水平(0、10、20、40 kg N hm-2 a-1)的增氮控制试验,利用流动化学分析仪和静态箱-气相色谱法4次/月测定凋落物层和矿质层土壤无机氮含量、土壤-大气界面N2O净交换通量以及相关环境因子,分析施氮类型和剂量对土壤氮素有效性、土壤N2O通量的影响,探讨氮素富集条件下土壤N2O通量的环境驱动机制。结果表明:施氮类型和剂量均显著影响土壤无机氮含量,土壤NH4+-N的积累效应显著高于NO3--N。施氮一致增加寒温带针叶林土壤N2O排放,NH4NO3促进效应最为明显,增幅为442%-677%,高于全球平均水平(134%)。土壤N2O通量与土壤温度、凋落物层NH4+-N含量正相关,且随着施氮水平增加而增加。结果表明大气氮沉降短期内不会导致寒温带针叶林土壤NO3--N大量流失,但会显著促进土壤N2O的排放。此外,外源性NH4+和NO3-输入对土壤N2O排放的促进作用具有协同效应,在未来森林生态系统氮循环和氮平衡研究中应该区分对待。
Abstract:
Increasing atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition would change soil N availability, and thereby changes N2O production and emission from N-limiting forest soils. However, it is still unclear about the contrasting effects of different N ion (i.e., oxidized NO3--N and reduced NH4+-N) deposition on soil N2O emission in boreal forests. In the present study, a cold-temperate coniferous forest in the Great Khingan region was selected for conducting the manipulative N addition experiment, including three forms of N fertilizers (NH4Cl, KNO3, and NH4NO3) and four rates of N addition (0, 10, 20, and 40 kg N hm-2 a-1). Soil-atmospheric N2O exchanging fluxes were measured four times per month using static chamber-gas chromatography. Simultaneously, soil temperature, moisture, and inorganic N contents were measured to explore how the main factors affect soil N2O emission. The results showed that the types and doses of N addition significantly changed soil inorganic N contents, and the accumulation of soil NH4+-N was significantly higher than that of soil NO3--N due to N addition. N addition increased N2O emission from the boreal forest soil, and the NH4NO3 addition treatments promoted high soil N2O fluxes, with an increase of 442% to 667%, which was higher than the global average (134%). There were positive correlations between soil N2O fluxes and soil temperature, and between soil N2O fluxes and soil NH4+-N contents in the litter layer. Soil N2O fluxes were driven by soil temperature, followed by soil NH4+-N contents in the litter layer. These findings suggest that atmospheric N deposition cannot lead to a significant soil NO3--N leaching and loss in boreal forests over the short term, but it can significantly promote soil N2O emission. Furthermore, exogenous NH4+ and NO3- inputs into boreal forests have synergic effects on soil N2O emission, which should be distinguished in N cycle and balance in terrestrial ecosystems using 15N tracer methods in the future.
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