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杨斌,王程亮,纪维红,赵海涛,王开锋,郭松涛,齐晓光,李保国.非人灵长类性打搅行为研究进展.生态学报,2013,33(19):5973~5980 本文二维码信息
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非人灵长类性打搅行为研究进展
Sexual interference in non-human primates
投稿时间:2013-04-07  修订日期:2013-07-29
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201304070620
关键词非人灵长类  性打搅行为  性竞争假说
Key Wordsnon-human primates  sexual interference behavior  sexual-competition hypothesis
基金项目国家自然基金的重点项目(31130061);国家自然科学基金项目(30970444,30900168,30970379);陕西省科学院基金项目(2009K-08,2013K-34,2013K-35);陕西省自然科学基金项目(2010JM3006)
作者单位E-mail
杨斌 陕西省动物研究所, 西安 710032  
王程亮 陕西省动物研究所, 西安 710032  
纪维红 梅西大学自然科学及数学学院, 新西兰  
赵海涛 陕西省动物研究所, 西安 710032  
王开锋 陕西省动物研究所, 西安 710032  
郭松涛 西北大学生命科学学院, 西安 710069  
齐晓光 西北大学生命科学学院, 西安 710069  
李保国 陕西省动物研究所, 西安 710032
西北大学生命科学学院, 西安 710069 
baoguoli@nwu.edu.cn 
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摘要:
性打搅行为是指非人灵长类社群内非交配个体对正在发生性行为个体的干扰行为,该行为在非人灵长类中普遍存在,通过综述目前已知的36种非灵长类的性打搅行为的报道,探讨性打搅行为的功能和意义。性打搅行为具有更高度的种间和种内差异,种间的性打搅的方式不同、同时受到社会结构和婚配制度的影响;在种内受到性别、年龄、等级等因素的影响。结合川金丝猴性打搅的研究结果,从性打搅的类型、被打搅的反应、性打搅的功能以及相关假说等方面入手,对非人灵长类性打搅行为进行系统总结,旨在为我国相关领域的研究提供参考,为生殖行为学研究者启发思路,推动本领域的发展。
Abstract:
Sexual interference behavior in non-human primate species is defined as the behavior with which non-mating individuals disturb a mating pair. The forms of sexual interference can be further divided into interruption and harassment in primates. The former is more disruptive and leads to termination of the copulatory sequence, and is mostly employed by adult males. The latter is mild interference such as approaching and touching or slapping the recipient, and is shown by immature individuals as well as adult females. Such interference does not necessarily lead to the termination of copulation. Numerous hypotheses have been proposed and examined for the function of sexual interference, but there is no hypothesis that can explain all types of sexual interference. Sexual interference may have multiple functions across species and among different age-sex classes in the same species. For this reason, the hypothesis of sexual interference is not consistent and hinders the research of this field. The aim of this paper is therefore to review the sexual interference behavior in 36 non-human primate species, and discuss the function and significance of this behavior. The proximate factors of sexual interference is related to reassurance of the "affiliative" bond between harasser and harassed which is manifested in: (1) Possessiveness (sexual interference is an emotional response to the threat of a disruption of affiliative bonds existing between the harasser and one or both of the mating pair); (2) Insecurity at weaning (sexual interference is an expression of separation anxiety of a young animal, an insecurity at weaning, during copulation of its mother). Proximate factors can reveal the motives of interference, but further research has demonstrated the ultimate consequences of sexual interferences, which are manifested in: (1) Parent-offspring conflict (Interfering in their mother's mating results in delaying or a new conception hence reducing the competition for maternal care between siblings.); (2) Sexual competition (the interference stops or delays the mating, resulting in reduced reproductive effectiveness of the copulant and thus increases her or his own breeding effectiveness). It can be concluded that the sexual interference is a selfish behavior to improve the protagonists own interests, rather than revenge behavior suggested by early research. Disturbed individuals also produce counter strategies, such as mating calls or active avoidance behavior. This should be further investigated. Sexual interference is associated with the mating system, and is characterized by low frequency and low intensity in polygyny species, and high frequency and high intensity in multimale-multifemale mating systems. Sexual interference behavior is affected by species, gender, age, rank, genetic, physiological, social structure and social situation and has significant inter-and intra-species differences. In this paper the research results of sexual interference in the Sichuan golden monkey and sexual interference behavior of non-human primate species are summarized systematically from the type of sexual interference, the response of interferers, the function of sexual interference and related hypotheses. The significance of this paper is to provide a reference for related researches in China and ideas for further studies of reproductive behavior, and thus promote the development of study in this field.
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