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吴健生,乔娜,彭建,黄秀兰,刘建政,潘雅婧.露天矿区景观生态风险空间分异.生态学报,2013,33(12):3816~3824 本文二维码信息
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露天矿区景观生态风险空间分异
Spatial variation of landscape eco-risk in open mine area
投稿时间:2012-07-30  修订日期:2013-04-18
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201207301083
关键词露天矿区  景观生态风险  ESDA
Key Wordsopencast mine area  landscape eco-risk  ESDA
基金项目国土资源部公益性行业科研专项课题(200911015-2)
作者单位E-mail
吴健生 城市人居环境科学与技术重点实验室, 北京大学深圳研究生院城市规划与设计学院, 深圳 518055
地表过程分析与模拟教育部重点实验室, 北京大学城市与环境学院, 北京 100871 
 
乔娜 城市人居环境科学与技术重点实验室, 北京大学深圳研究生院城市规划与设计学院, 深圳 518055 1001213122@pku.edu.cn 
彭建 城市人居环境科学与技术重点实验室, 北京大学深圳研究生院城市规划与设计学院, 深圳 518055
地表过程分析与模拟教育部重点实验室, 北京大学城市与环境学院, 北京 100871 
 
黄秀兰 城市人居环境科学与技术重点实验室, 北京大学深圳研究生院城市规划与设计学院, 深圳 518055  
刘建政 城市人居环境科学与技术重点实验室, 北京大学深圳研究生院城市规划与设计学院, 深圳 518055  
潘雅婧 地表过程分析与模拟教育部重点实验室, 北京大学城市与环境学院, 北京 100871  
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摘要:
以露天矿区为研究对象,评价矿区景观生态风险,并采用ESDA方法定量研究矿区生态风险空间分异特征。结果表明,矿区景观生态风险空间分布以高风险区域为核心,由高到低呈环形包围特征。其中,高风险主要分布在矿业生产及城市生活区域,以土地破坏、压占及城市建设为主要风险来源;中等风险主要分布于自然、半自然功能区,以城市生活与农业生产为主要风险来源;低风险区域以林地、荒草地等植被覆盖区域为主,但大面积植被退化、水土流失导致该区域生态基底较差、环境脆弱,加之露天煤矿作业频繁,整体生态环境质量堪忧。同时,不同功能区的风险高低排序(人工区>半自然区>自然区)特征符合常规的区域生态风险等级差异规律。此外,基于ESDA分析矿区景观生态风险,其空间自相关性高达0.7521,风险的空间集聚效应明显;而对比矿区景观生态风险的空间分异特征发现,景观干扰度是高、低风险区域的主要驱动因子;而景观脆弱度则是中等风险区域的驱动因子;基于以上研究结果可对矿区环境管理和风险决策提供一定的数据支撑和理论依据。
Abstract:
The demand for coal resources is increasing with economic development in China. But, the rich mineral resources along with the intensive mining activities, which have led to a lot of ecological and environmental problems, such as environmental pollution, ecological destruction and geological disasters. Eco-risk assessment is an important tool for effective ecological environment management with evaluations of the likelihood and degree of harm.
Thus, this paper applied landscape eco-risk assessment methods to estimate the level of the opencast mine area eco-risk. But also the ESDA(Exploratory spatial data analysis) methods were used to analyze the spatial association characteristic of landscape eco-risk in mining area. It turned out that those high-risk areas is the core of the spatial distribution of Landscape eco-risk and from high-risk to low-risk present ring features. In addition, high-risk is mainly distributed in the mining industry and city life areas, sources of which are the mining, coal gangue tie up land and city construction activities. Medium-risk are mainly distributed in nature, half natural functional areas, the main sources of which are the city life and the agricultural production activities. Low-risk areas are covered by sparse vegetation, such as shrub and grassland. However, in research areas, vegetation degradation, soil and water loss leads to the regional ecological base quality was poor. So the ecosystems and environmental factors are fragile here. Moreover, the frequent production activities in mining areas cause more serious ecological and environment problems. The risk degree of the artificial area is higher than the half natural area, and the half natural area is higher than the natural area. It is conform to the conventional law of ecological risk level difference. At the same time, based on the ESDA of the landscape eco-risk in opencast mine area, the space correlation of the risk is up to 0.7521, which indicate that the agglomeration features of the risk obviously. Different characteristics of agglomeration provide the basis for the ecological and environment management. Space differentiation study of Landscape eco-risk in this opencast mine area shows that interference are the main driving factors in the high-risk and low-risk areas. But in the medium-risk area, fragile degree is the main driving factors. With the increase of human interference, landscape lost diversity and tend to simplification. The results of the study on the mining area provide certain data support and theoretical basis to environment management.
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