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袁俏君,苗素英,李恒翔,于秀娟,唐玲,严岩.珠江口水域夏季小型底栖生物群落结构.生态学报,2012,32(19):5962~5971 本文二维码信息
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珠江口水域夏季小型底栖生物群落结构
Analysis of the meiobenthic community in the Pearl River Estuary in summer
投稿时间:2011-08-25  修订日期:2012-07-03
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201108251244
关键词珠江口  小型底栖生物  丰度  生物量
Key WordsPearl River Estuary  meiobenthos  abundance  biomass
基金项目中国科学院-国家外专局创新团队国际合作伙伴计划项目(KZCX2-YW-T001)
作者单位E-mail
袁俏君 中山大学生命科学学院, 广州 510275  
苗素英 中山大学生命科学学院, 广州 510275  
李恒翔 中国科学院南海海洋研究所海洋生物资源可持续利用重点实验室, 广州 510301  
于秀娟 中国科学院南海海洋研究所海洋生物资源可持续利用重点实验室, 广州 510301  
唐玲 中国科学院南海海洋研究所海洋生物资源可持续利用重点实验室, 广州 510301  
严岩 中国科学院南海海洋研究所海洋生物资源可持续利用重点实验室, 广州 510301 yany@scsio.ac.cn 
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摘要:
于2010年8月在珠江口水域进行小型底栖生物取样分析,结果表明,该调查水域夏季小型底栖生物的平均丰度为(183±174) 个/10 cm2,平均生物量为(345±334)μg 干重/10 cm2,平均生产量为(3104±3008)μg 干重/10 cm2。共鉴定出小型底栖生物16个类群,按丰度,自由生活海洋线虫和双壳类幼体为优势类群,其丰度分别占调查水域小型底栖生物总丰度的62.61%和22.62%。按生物量,优势类群由双壳类幼体(50.57%)、线虫(13.33%)和多毛类(12.47%)等组成。81.15%的小型底栖生物分布在0-5 cm的沉积物中。与环境因子相关分析表明:小型底栖生物丰度、线虫丰度与温度呈显著负相关,与盐度呈显著正相关。调查水域线虫与桡足类数量的比值(N/C)呈现出由河口上游向下游递增,且西岸明显高于东岸的趋势。
Abstract:
Meiofauna, a fundamental component of terrestrial and marine benthic ecosystems, form an integral element of food webs and play a critical role in nutrient recycling. To clarify the composition and ecological roles of meiobenthic communities within sediments of the Pearl River Estuary, Southern China, meiofauna composition, abundance, biomass and distribution were reported together with abiotic parameters (temperature and salinity of water, organic matter content organic and particle size of sediment) based on samples conducted at 16 stations (from 22.10° N to 22.80°N, 113.50° E to 114.00° E) in summer, 2010.
A total of 16 meiofaunal groups were identified in the whole sampling study. Free living marine nematodes were the most dominant group, with an abundance of (115±115) ind./10cm2, accounting for 62.61% of the total meiofauna, followed by Bivalvia larvae (22.62%), crustacean nauplii (5.02%), and harpacticoid copepods (3.28%). The remaining groups accounted for less than 2% of total meiofauna, and included Polychaeta, Nemerteana, Echiurida, Ostracoda, Kinorhyncha, Oligochaeta, Turbellaria, Tanaidacea, Cnidaria, Acarina, Tardigrada and unidentified taxa. The average abundance, biomass and production of the meiobenthos was (183±174) ind./10cm2, (345±334)μg dwt/10cm2 and (3104±3008)μg dwt/10cm2 respectively. Based on the meiobenthic biomass, the main dominant groups were bivalves (50.57% of total meiobenthos biomass), followed by nematodes (13.33% of total) and polychaetes (12.47% of total). Most meiobenthos (81.15%) were found distributed in the 0-5 cm layer of sediment. Vertical distribution was different for the dominant groups of the meiobenthos; bivalves and nematodes were in the 0-5 cm layer of sediment, most copepods were in the 0-2 cm layer, and polychaetes were in the 2-5 cm layer. Analysis of abiotic parameters showed that the average organic matter content of the sediment was 6.90%, which showed an increase from the west to the east of the estuary, and from the upper reaches to the lower. The dominant sediment type was poor sorted silt-clay, representing 84.39%-97.29% of total sediment and with median diameter (MDФ) from 6.56-7.18. This sediment type was found throughout most areas of the estuary. In the top 8 cm of sediment, average Chl-a concentration was 0.80 μg/g and the average organic matter was 6.90%.
The correlation analysis between meiobenthos and abiotic parameters indicated that the abundance of meiobenthos correlated positively with salinity, and negatively with temperature near the bottom, silt-clay content, median diameter (MDФ) and organic matter of sediment. The abundance of polychaetes and nematodes was also found to correlate negatively with bottom water temperature and positively with water salinity. The results of hierarchical clustering and multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis of the sampling showed that all sites could be divided into three groups at the similarity level of 50%. The structure and diversity of the sampling sites were expressed using the Shannon-Wiener index, the Margalef index and the dominance index. Values of the Shannon-Wiener index ranged from 0.667-1.653, while the dominance index ranged 0.314-0.784. The mean nematode/copepod-ratio (N/C-ratio) showed an increasing trend from upper to lower reaches and from west to east of the estuary, which could correspond to the organic pollution of the Pearl River Estuary.
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