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栾晓峰,孙工棋,曲艺,黄维妮,李迪强,刘世荣,吴波.基于C-Plan规划软件的生物多样性就地保护优先区规划——以中国东北地区为例.生态学报,2012,32(3):715~722 本文二维码信息
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基于C-Plan规划软件的生物多样性就地保护优先区规划——以中国东北地区为例
Prioritizing biodiversity in conservation planning based on C-Plan:a case study from northeast China
投稿时间:2011-08-19  最后修改时间:2012-01-04
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201108191219
关键词生物多样性  优先保护  GAP分析  C-Plan软件
Key Wordsbiodiversity  priority conservation  GAP  C-Plan software
基金项目国家"十一五"科技支撑项目(2008BADB0B06);国家科技基础平台项目(2005DKA21404);世界自然基金会项目
作者单位E-mail
栾晓峰 北京林业大学自然保护区学院, 北京 100083 luanxiaofeng@hotmail.com 
孙工棋 北京林业大学自然保护区学院, 北京 100083  
曲艺 北京林业大学自然保护区学院, 北京 100083  
黄维妮 北京师范大学生命科学院, 北京 100875  
李迪强 中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与保护研究所, 北京 100091  
刘世荣 中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与保护研究所, 北京 100091  
吴波 中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与保护研究所, 北京 100091  
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摘要:
以中国东北地区为研究区域,根据生物多样性属性特征,选择研究区域内具有代表性的濒危物种作为指示物种,利用系统保护规划方法(Systematic Conservation Planning, SCP)和保护规划软件(C-Plan),对该区域进行了优先保护规划研究。通过计算规划单元的不可替代性值(Irreplaceability,IR),找出区域生物多样性热点地区和保护空缺地区,然后利用C-Plan规划软件对该地区进行保护优先等级划分,确定必须保护(Mandatory Reserved,MR)、协商保护(Negotiated Reserved,NR)和部分保护(Partially Reserved,PR)3个等级保护区域的具体位置和面积,并针对保护现状提出保护规划建议。结果显示,必须保护区域的总面积占区域总面积的8.17%,主要分布于长白山核心地区和大兴安岭北部原始林区;协商保护区域占总面积的7.51%,主要分布于大兴安岭东南部和松嫩平原湿地;部分保护区域占总面积的9%。保护空缺分析结果显示,现有国家级自然保护区对生物多样性的保护存在3个明显的保护空缺,即长白山林区的龙岗山地区、老爷岭北部和张广才岭南部;大兴安岭北部原始林区、呼玛河-黑龙江流域的平原湿地和伊勒呼里山东南部山区;大兴安岭南部森林草原过渡区的东南部森林地区。结合区域内已建立的国家级自然保护区情况,利用C-Plan规划软件对不同时期建立的保护区实现保护目标的贡献率做了分析。截止2000年,已建保护区可实现预期保护目标的17.5%,通过对贡献率大小的比较确定了不同时期保护的有效程度。研究打破了传统的对称几何形状的单元划分方法,根据植被类型和自然地形地貌,采用自然多边形进行单元划分,提高了物种分布范围准确度。研究通过C-Plan规划软件的实际应用,丰富了系统保护规划研究的方法,从理论上为区域保护规划提供了科学依据,并可指导我国自然保护区管理政策的制定和中长期规划的编制。
Abstract:
Based on the study of biodiversity features of forested areas, the irreplaceability values of conservation planning units can be calculated using the Systematic Conservation Planning (SCP) approach and C-Plan conservation planning software (C-plan). This approach selects representative endangered species as indicator species and their spatial distributions are then estimated using C-Plan. To analyze biodiversity hotspots in northeast China we used the planning function of C-Plan. According to existing conservation areas and the priority ratings of the area under study, a GAP analysis of biodiversity was performed. Depending on the irreplaceability value of each conservation planning unit, we divided areas into three levels of conservation priority, mandatory reservd areas (MR), negotiated Reserved areas (NR) and partially reserved areas (PR). The result shows that areas for MR priority, most of which lie in the core areas of Changbai Mountain and the virgin forests of the northern Great Khingan Mountains, accounts for 8.17% of the entire area under study; the NR areas, which mainly lie in the southeast of Great Khingan Mountains and the Songnen Plain wetland, accounts for 7.51%; and Partially reserved areas account for 9%. Results of GAP analysis show there are some evident protection gaps between priority planning areas and existing national nature reserves in northeastern China. Those are Changbai mountain area, north Great Khingan Mountains, the transitional area between western grassland and north Great Khingan Mountains area. In addition we studied the contribution existing nature reserves make to achieve the target of protection in different periods by using C-Plan, the results of which show the contribution value of the existing conservation areas to be 17.5% by the year 2000. By comparing contribution values of existing and planned nature reserves, we can decide the level of protection, guide the systematic planning of conservation areas, and support further development and strategies for conservation accordingly. Our research created a new approach to SCP for planning units, using natural polygons, such as vegetation types and landforms, instead of the traditional method using symmetrical shapes vastly improving the accuracy of the distribution range of species.
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