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宋贺,蒋延玲,周莉,许振柱,周广胜.玉米光合生理参数对全生育期干旱与拔节后干旱过程的响应.生态学报,2019,(7).http://dx.doi.org/10.5846/stxb201804270957  
玉米光合生理参数对全生育期干旱与拔节后干旱过程的响应
Response of photosynthetic physiological parameters in Maize to the drought in whole growth period and the drought process after jointing stage
投稿时间:2018-04-27  修订日期:2018-11-02
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201804270957
关键词全生育期干旱  拔节后干旱过程  玉米  光合生理  响应机理
Key Wordsdrought in whole growth period  drought process after jointing stage  maize  photosynthetic physiology  response mechanism
基金项目国家自然科学基金(41330531);公益性行业(气象)科研专项(GYHY201506019)
作者单位E-mail
宋贺 中国科学院植物研究所 songhe90@126.com 
蒋延玲 中国科学院植物研究所 yljiang@ibcas.ac.cn 
周莉 中国气象科学研究院  
许振柱 中国科学院植物研究所  
周广胜 中国气象科学研究院  
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摘要:
作物对干旱的响应已有大量研究,但对不同强度干旱及其持续时间响应过程的研究甚少。本研究通过开展全生育期干旱和拔节后干旱过程的影响模拟实验,试图揭示夏玉米叶片光合生理特性对不同干旱强度及其持续时间的响应机理,为我国北方地区玉米育种和节水灌溉提供科学的理论依据。研究结果表明:1)干旱显著降低了玉米叶片的叶绿素相对含量(SPAD),但两种干旱处理下的SPAD随干旱持续时间的延长而出现响应差异并逐渐扩大;2)不同强度、不同持续时间的干旱处理均明显抑制了玉米叶片的最大净固碳速率(Asat),拔节后的轻度干旱过程对玉米叶片Asat的影响最大;3)拔节期后重度干旱过程处理下玉米叶片虽保持较高的光合速率,但叶片数量急剧减少,而且一直保持在营养生长阶段,没有产量;4)在两种干旱处理方式下,玉米叶片PSII的光化学效率(Fv"/Fm")均到灌浆中期才开始出现显著降低现象,表现出了较强的干旱适应能力;5)SPAD与叶片光合及叶绿素荧光参数均存在较强的相关关系,可作为评价玉米叶片光合性能对干旱胁迫敏感性的指示性指标;6)不仅干旱强度影响玉米叶片的生理生态过程,干旱发生的时间也具有重要的影响。
Abstract:
Drought is one of the major constraints of maize growth and yield. Thus, studying the effects of drought on maize is particularly important. However, there are a few of studies about the effect of different intensities of drought and its continuity on maize leaf photosynthetic characteristics, hampered the stable yield and high yield of maize in such increasingly dry environment. A field automatic rain-shelter was used in this study, and five irrigation treatments including control and drought stress were designed. It would provide a scientific theoretical basis for maize breeding and water-saving irrigation in North China. The study showed: 1) the drought in whole growth period and drought process after jointing stage all reduced the leaf chlorophyll relative content (SPAD) of maize significantly. And severe drought treatments had greater effect on SPAD than mild drought treatments. But the difference would appear among the response trends under different drought treatments along with the duration of drought, reflecting the difference in adaptive response of maize leaves to drought. The SPAD of maize leaves under drought process after jointing stage showed higher than those under drought in whole growth period, revealing the significance effects of adequate water supply before jointing stage on the nutrient accumulation for later growth of maize’s leaves. 2) whether drought in whole growth period or drought process after jointing stage all significantly inhibited the light-saturated net photosynthetic rate (Asat). Severe drought had greater impact on Asat than mild drought in whole growth period. But, on the contrary, mild drought process after jointing stage had the greater influence to Asat than severe drought process, which indicating the difference in the responses of Asa to different drought treatments. The Asat under mild and severe drought process after jointing stage were all higher than that under severe drought in whole growth period, revealing that adequate water supply before jointing stage was very important for maize to adapt to later drought condition and enhance its photosynthesis. 3) though the leaf kept a higher Asat under the severe drought process after jointing stage, the total leaf amount of single maize reduced sharply, resulted in lower photosynthetic product. The whole maize plant maintained its vegetative growth stage in the whole growth period and with no yield. 4) under all drought treatments, the photochemical efficiency of PSII in the light (Fv"/Fm") presented the same response regularity. It didn’t appear significant decrease until the mid-milking period, and then increased gradually in the late milking period, expressing stronger adaptive capacity to drought. 5) the SPAD had strong correlations with the leaf photosynthetic and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, revealed that the SPAD could reflect the change of PSII photochemical activity and photosynthetic capacity of maize under drought conditions, which could be used as an indicator of maize’s sensitivity to drought stress. 6) not only the drought intensity, but also the time of drought occurrence all significantly affected the physiological and ecological processes of maize leaves. So the two factors should be taken into consideration at the same time in future drought study.
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