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沈园,李涛,唐明方,邓红兵.西南地区生物文化多样性空间格局研究.生态学报,2019,(7).http://dx.doi.org/10.5846/stxb201804060776  
西南地区生物文化多样性空间格局研究
Spatial patterns of biocultural diversity in Southwest China
投稿时间:2018-04-06  修订日期:2018-11-01
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201804060776
关键词文化多样性  生物多样性  生物文化多样性  空间格局  西南地区
Key Wordscultural diversity  biological diversity  biocultural diversity  spatial patterns  Southwest China
基金项目国家科技攻关计划
作者单位E-mail
沈园 中国科学院生态环境研究中心 yshen_st@rcees.ac.cn 
李涛 中国科学院生态环境研究中心  
唐明方 中国科学院生态环境研究中心  
邓红兵 中国科学院生态环境研究中心 denghb@rcees.ac.cn 
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摘要:
自然条件的丰富性与独特性以及多民族聚居的特征使得西南地区成为我国生物多样性和文化多样性的热点地区,但当前仍然缺乏对区域生物文化多样性格局的定量研究。以西南地区603个县级行政区为基本单元,本研究探讨了西南地区的文化多样性与生物多样性的分布格局,在此基础上定量计算了生物文化多样性,从而识别西南地区生物文化多样性空间格局,并分析不同因素对多样性空间分布的影响。文化多样性与生物多样性存在一定的空间分布差异,同时也存在高低值聚类的重叠区域。高生物文化多样性的区域与高生物多样性的区域分布较为相似,而低生物文化多样性的区域与低文化多样性的区域分布较为接近;生物文化多样性的高低值聚类区呈现明显的片状格局。由于生境条件与人为干扰等原因,西南地区文化多样性、生物多样性与生物文化多样性沿河流流向大多呈现“低-高”或“低-高-低”的变化状态。影响因素分析表明,文化多样性与生物多样性产生相互促进的作用;三种多样性的空间分布都受到平均坡度的重要影响;多样性高的单元聚集在地形坡度大、海拔与坡度的差异程度较大而水体覆盖率较低的区域。文化多样性与生物多样性的密切联系表现在地理空间上的交叉重合,因此,对文化多样性与生物多样性的保护应统筹兼顾,并更多从生物文化多样性的视角或者途径来开展相关研究与保护实践。
Abstract:
The richness and uniqueness of natural conditions make Southwest China a hot spot for biological diversity. There is also a long history of traditional customs and colourful ethnic culture in Southwest China, owing to the presence of several ethnic minorities. Both biological and cultural diversity are the basis for conserving the natural world and human societies. Considered as the sum of differences in the world, biocultural diversity refers to the complex connection between these two forms of diversity, and increasing attention is now being paid to this concept. Southwest China is the ideal region to study spatial patterns of diversity and the factors influencing them, but little quantitative research exists. Thus, we used 603 administrative districts at the county level to quantitatively calculate biocultural diversity, to identify any spatial patterns, and to analyse how different factors influence spatial distribution of this diversity. Cultural and biological diversity differed slightly in spatial distribution, but many high-value or low-value clustering areas overlapped. Among them, the Hengduan Mountains, as well as the lower reaches of the Lancang River Basin and the Yuanjiang River Basin, were high-value clustering areas for cultural and biological diversity. Low-value clustering areas included the upper reaches of the Yalu Tsangpo River Basin, the Nujiang River Basin, and the Sichuan Basin. In addition, high biocultural and biological diversity had similar regional distributions, as did low biocultural and cultural diversity. Overlapping effects of high-/low-value clustering areas for both variables resulted in a blanket pattern of biocultural diversity. Owing to terrain conditions and human disturbance, the three forms of diversity, viz., cultural, biological, and biocultural, all tended to change from "low to high" or "low to high to low" along the course of the rivers within watersheds. Analysis of influencing factors demonstrated that cultural and biological diversity played a mutually reinforcing role to each other. Moreover, average slope strongly affected the distributions of cultural, biological, and biocultural diversity. Highly diverse areas tended to be those with steeper slopes, larger altitude and slope variation, but lower water coverage. The close connection between cultural and biological diversity was reflected in geographical overlap. We conclude that diversity conservation in Southwest China should consider both cultural and biological diversity. More research and protection practices should be implemented to better understand biocultural diversity.
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