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霍雪莹,康海斌,王得祥,常明捷,于飞.啮齿动物对秦岭松栎混交林建群种种子扩散格局的影响.生态学报,2019,(7).http://dx.doi.org/10.5846/stxb201804140859  
啮齿动物对秦岭松栎混交林建群种种子扩散格局的影响
Effect of rodents on the seed dispersal patterns of constructive species in pine-oak mixed forests in Qinling Mountains
投稿时间:2018-04-14  修订日期:2018-10-30
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201804140859
关键词松栎混交林  建群种  种子扩散  种子特征  林分类型
Key Wordspine-oak mixed forest  constructive species  seed dispersal  seed traits  forest types
基金项目国家自然科学基金项目(面上项目,重点项目,重大项目)
作者单位E-mail
霍雪莹 西北农林科技大学林学院 1490924305@qq.com 
康海斌 西北农林科技大学林学院 hbkang2010@126.com 
王得祥 西北农林科技大学林学院 wangdx66@126.com 
常明捷 西北农林科技大学林学院  
于飞 河南师范大学生命科学学院  
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摘要:
摘要:森林群落中的啮齿动物对林木种子存在着一定的取食偏好性,这种偏好性会使啮齿动物形成不同的捕食和贮藏策略,从而导致林木种子形成不同的扩散格局。本文以秦岭中段松栎混交林建群种锐齿槲栎、油松、华山松为研究对象,采用塑料标签标记种子方法,研究啮齿动物对种子传播和扩散格局的影响。结果表明:(1)种子特征是影响啮齿动物对其进行扩散的重要因子,油松种子以其质量小、种皮薄等特点吸引啮齿动物大量捕食,其原地取食率达到83.33%,显著高于华山松和锐齿槲栎种子。(2)锐齿槲栎和华山松种子大部分被搬运一定距离后再被取食和埋藏,其中,扩散距离在1m以内、1-3m和5-8m的锐齿槲栎种子分别占59.12%、18.23%和13.26%,最远扩散距离达12m处;华山松种子扩散距离主要介于在1-3m(37.85%)和3-5m(23.73%),在距离5-8m(13.56%)、8-10m(11.86%)和大于10m(11.30%)区间也有一定的分布,最大扩散距离为12m。(3)啮齿动物倾向于将锐齿槲栎种子搬运至松林内取食,而将华山松种子搬运至栎林内埋藏,说明不同林分类型及其环境因素对林木种子扩散后的分布格局具有重要影响。(4)3 种类型种子被啮齿动物捕食的比例以油松最大(96.90%),锐齿槲栎次之(73.57%),华山松最小(50%);次年调查时,未被捕食的种子大部分已经被取食,仅有极少数锐齿槲栎种子萌发成幼苗(1.67%)。啮齿动物的捕食和贮藏行为对林木种子扩散及其成功更新都至关重要。
Abstract:
Abstract: Rodents in forest communities have a certain feeding preference for tree seeds. This preference will lead to different predation and storage strategies for rodents, resulting in different diffusion patterns of tree seeds. In this study, the seed fate of Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata, Pinus armandii and Pinus tabuliformis were studied, to analyze the seed dispersal patterns of constructive species in pine-oak mixed forests. The results showed that seed traits are a main factor affecting the removal of rodents. The in situ seed predation rate of P. tabuliformis seeds was 83.33%, which was obviously higher than the other types of seeds, indicating that rodent tended to feed on the small P. tabuliformis seeds. Q. var. acuteserrata seeds and P. armandii seeds were transported to distant locations for feeding and burying. The Q. var. acuteserrata seeds with diffusion distances of less than 1m, 1-3m and 5-8m accounted for 59.12%, 18.23% and 13.26%, respectively, and the farthest diffusion distance reached 12m; The seed diffusion distance of P. armandi is mainly between 1-3m (37.85%) and 3-5m (23.73%), and is within the range of 5-8m (13.56%), 8-10m (11.86%) and greater than 10m (11.30%). And the maximum diffusion distance of P. armandi seeds also is 12m. Rodents tended to transport the Q. var. acuteserrata seeds to the pine forest for feeding, while transporting the seeds of P. armandii to the oak forest, indicating that different forest types also provide an important stage in seed dispersal. P. tabuliformis seeds are preyed by rodents in the largest proportion (96.90%), followed by Q. var. acuteserrata seeds(73.57%) and P. armandii seeds (50%).At the next year"s survey, most of the unpredicted seeds had been fed, and only a handful of Q. var. acuteserrata seeds sprouted into seedlings (1.67%). The predation and storage behavior of rodents is critical for the spread of forest seeds and their successful renewal.
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