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周世强,张晋东,Vanessa HULL,黄金燕,刘巅,周季秋,孙萌萌,欧阳志云,张和民.野生大熊猫与放牧家畜的活动格局比较.生态学报,2019,(3).http://dx.doi.org/10.5846/stxb201804170879  
野生大熊猫与放牧家畜的活动格局比较
Comparative activity patterns of wild giant pandas and livestock
投稿时间:2018-04-17  修订日期:2018-09-05
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201804170879
关键词大熊猫  放牧家畜  活动格局  GPS颈圈  卧龙国家级自然保护区。
Key WordsGiant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca)  Livestock  GPS-collar  Activity pattern  Wolong State Nature Reserve.
基金项目国家林业局大熊猫国际合作基金项目(SD0631、SD1113、WL01).
作者单位E-mail
周世强 中国大熊猫保护研究中心 shiqiangzhou@sina.com 
张晋东 西华师范大学西南野生动植物资源保护教育部国家重点实验室  
Vanessa HULL Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, University of Florida  
黄金燕 中国大熊猫保护研究中心  
刘巅 中国大熊猫保护研究中心  
周季秋 中国大熊猫保护研究中心  
孙萌萌 中国大熊猫保护研究中心  
欧阳志云 中国科学院生态环境研究中心城市与区域生态国家重点实验室  
张和民 中国大熊猫保护研究中心 wolong_zhm@126.com 
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摘要:
活动格局是动物内在机制和环境作用所表现出来的昼夜活动节律及其活动水平的行为生态特征,影响着动物的能量代谢能力、觅食行为策略和进化适应。我们通过内置活动传感器的GPS颈圈,于2010-2012年在四川卧龙国家级自然保护区的“核桃坪”及其毗邻区域,采集了野生大熊猫和放牧家畜的大量活动数据。分别选择3只成年大熊猫和3个马群的代表性个体作为样本,引入活动强度、活动时间百分率、活动时间片段率和活动片段时长等指标进行了两者之间的比较,以揭示大熊猫和放牧家畜在时间利用方面的内在特征。结果表明:野生大熊猫和放牧家畜在活动强度、活动时间百分率和活动时间片段率等方面都具有极显著性差异(P<0.0001),仅两者之间的活动片段时长无明显的统计学意义(P=0.4107)。野生大熊猫表现为活动水平低、活动时间少、活动片段率高和活动片段时长短等特征的活动格局,且不同月份(季度)之间变化较大(P<0.0001);放牧家畜则呈现出相异的时间利用规律,即活动水平高、活动时间多、活动时间片段率稍低和活动片段时长略长等特性。不同的时间利用规律和不同的空间利用模式,造成动物之间对栖息地、食物资源和伴生动物的利用方式、影响强度和空间分布的截然不同。因而,合理规划和管控放牧家畜的散养区域与数量,是自然保护管理与社区经济发展相协调的有效途径之一。
Abstract:
Aspects of an animal’s activity patterns such as circadian rhythm and activity levels are caused by intrinsic mechanisms and environmental effects, which in turn affect an animal"s energy metabolism abilities, foraging behavior strategies and evolutionary adaptation. Using GPS collars fitted with dual-axis accelerometers on wild giant pandas and livestock, we collected activity data from 2010 to 2012 in “Hetaoping” and its adjacent area of the Wolong National Nature Reserve. The archetypal individuals of three adult giant pandas and three horses were selected as samples. Indexes of activity levels, active time percentage, activity fragmentation rate and active segment duration were compared between the them in order to reveal intrinsic features of the giant pandas and livestock in terms of time utilization. The results showed that the wild pandas and livestock had differences in activity intensity, percentage of active time, and activity fragmentation rate (P<0.0001). There was no significant statistical difference in the duration of activity segments between them (P=0.4107). Wild pandas showed activity patterns with a low activity level, less active time, high activity fragmentation rate, and low duration of activity segments, which varied greatly between different months (seasons) (P<0.0001). Livestock exhibited distinctive time-use patterns, i.e. elevated activity levels, multiple active times, slightly lower activity segment ratios, and somewhat longer duration of action segments. The discrete time-use patterns and spatial utilization models stem from the differences in utilization patterns, impact strength, and specific distribution in habitats and food resources of the animals. Therefore, the rational planning and control of the amount of free-range areas for livestock is an effective way to harmonize nature conservation management with community economic development.
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