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郭滨德,王晓春,张远东.阈值温度和积温对川西高原林线岷江冷杉径向生长的影响.生态学报,2019,(3).http://dx.doi.org/10.5846/stxb201803300686  
阈值温度和积温对川西高原林线岷江冷杉径向生长的影响
Influences of accumulated and threshold temperatures on the radial growth of Abies faxoniana at the alpine timberline, western Sichuan Plateau
投稿时间:2018-03-30  修订日期:2018-09-01
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201803300686
关键词高山林线  径向生长  积温  树轮  气候变暖  岷江冷杉
Key WordsAlpine timberline  radial growth  accumulated temperature  tree rings  climate warming  Abies faxoniana
基金项目
作者单位E-mail
郭滨德 东北林业大学 gbd19881208@vip.qq.com 
王晓春 东北林业大学 wangx@nefu.edu.cn 
张远东 中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与保护研究所  
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摘要:
高山林线的形成机理一直是高山生态学讨论的一个焦点问题,其中林线树木生长的阈值温度一直是研究热点。本文利用川西高原九寨沟弓杠岭林线岷江冷杉(Abies faxoniana)树木径向生长数据,通过树轮宽度-气候因子关系分析,探讨阈值温度和积温对林线岷江冷杉径向生长的影响。结果表明:林线岷江冷杉径向生长主要受到温度限制,其中林线岷江冷杉径向生长与当年生长季(7、8和9月)、冬季(12、1和2)及上一年9、10月温度显著正相关(p < 0.05),但与降水的相关性较弱。林线岷江冷杉径向生长与不同起始温度的初日负相关,与不同起始温度的终日正相关,且与9.5 ℃阈值温度的初日负相关最强 (p < 0.05),与6.5℃阈值温度的终日正相关最强(p < 0.05)。林线岷江冷杉径向生长还与7~9.5℃的积温及9.5℃持续天数显著正相关(p < 0.05),说明7~9.5℃可能是形成层活动的阈值温度,尤其7℃可能是林线岷江冷杉生长的起始温度。林线岷江冷杉生长期从4月中旬开始到10月初结束,随着1980年后温度的显著升高,生长期活动积温开始增加,生长期初日提前(4.6d/10a, r2 = 0.19, p = 0.01),生长期终日延后(1.8d/10a),使得生长期延长(6.4d/10a),进而对林线岷江冷杉径向生长有显著的促进作用。未来气候变暖可能会使川西林线树木生长增加,林线可能会上移。
Abstract:
The formation mechanism of alpine timberline has always been a focus problem in alpine mountain forest ecology, and the threshold temperature of tree growth at timberline has always been a hot spot of research. Here, we used the radial growth data of Minjiang fir (Abies faxoniana) at the timberline of Gonggang Mountain, Jiuzhaigou, Western Sichuan Plateau, to test the effects of threshold temperature and accumulated temperature on Minjiang fir growth through response function analysis. Results showed that the radial growth of Minjiang fir is mainly limited by temperature. The radial growth of Minjiang fir at the timberline is positively correlated with temperatures during the growing season (July-September), winter (previous December-February), and the temperature in the previous September and October (p < 0.05). However, the effect of precipitation of Minjiang fir growth is weak. The fir radial growth is negatively and positively correlated with the first and last days of growth date at different threshold temperature, respectively. The strongest correlations between fir growth and the first and last days of growth date at different threshold temperature appears at 9.5 ℃ and 6.5 ℃, respectively. The fir radial growth at timberline are also positively correlated with the accumulated temperatures (starting at 7, 7.5, 8, 8.5, 9 and 9.5 ℃) and the duration at 9.5 ℃. (p<0.05), which indicates that the temperature of 7-9.5 ℃ may be the threshold temperature of cambium activity, especially the temperature of 7 ℃ may be the initial temperature of photosynthesis and growth of Minjiang fir at the timberline. The growth period of Minjiang fir at timberline is from the middle of April to the beginning of October. With the temperature increased significantly after 1980, the accumulated temperature during the growing season began to increase, the first day of growth date shift to an earlier date (4.6d/10a, r2 = 0.19, p = 0.01), the last day of growth date is postponed (1.8d/10a, r2 = 0.04, p = 0.25), the growing season becomes longer (6.4d/10a, r2 = 0.19, p = 0.01), and which significantly promote the radial growth of Mingjiang fir at the timberline. Our results suggest that future climate warming may increase tree growth at timberline of the West Sichuan Plateau and the timberline may move upward.
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