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董天.鄂尔多斯生态系统格局和质量变化及驱动力因素.生态学报,2019,(2).http://dx.doi.org/10.5846/stxb201804080788  
鄂尔多斯生态系统格局和质量变化及驱动力因素
Analysis on the driving factors which influencing the pattern and quality of Ordos’s ecosystem
投稿时间:2018-04-08  修订日期:2018-08-30
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201804080788
关键词生态系统格局  生态系统质量  驱动力  鄂尔多斯市
Key Wordsecosystem pattern  ecosystem quality  driving factors  Ordos
基金项目国家自然科学基金项目(面上项目,重点项目,重大项目)(71533005)城市复合生态系统人与自然耦合机制与调控方法
作者单位E-mail
董天 中国科学院生态环境研究中心 evedongtian@163.com 
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摘要:
生态系统变化是生态问题产生的主要驱动力之一,研究生态系统格局与质量变化对于认识人类活动与生态系统关系具有 重要意义。 鄂尔多斯市能源资源丰富,但生态环境脆弱,2000 年以来,鄂尔多斯市在大规模开发能源的同时,也在不断加强生 态环境的保护,而研究鄂尔多斯市生态系统格局与质量演变过程,对认识生态脆弱区发展与保护的关系有重要价值。 应用遥感 数据和 GIS 技术,评估了鄂尔多斯市生态系统类型与格局、生态系统质量的特征,以及 2000 年以来的时空变化趋势,分析了导 致鄂尔多斯市生态系统格局与质量变化的驱动力因素。 结果表明:(1)鄂尔多斯市的草地、荒漠裸地和农田为主要生态系统类 型,分别占 2010 年市域面积的 64.46%、21.34%与 5.93%。 (2)鄂尔多斯市城镇、灌丛、森林面积有所增加,草地、湿地、农田、荒 漠裸地面积有所下降。 城镇面积增幅最大,相对变化率增加 33.37%,草地面积降幅最大,相对变化率减少 0.78%,变化主要集 中在中部、东北部。 (3)鄂尔多斯市生态系统质量整体偏低,低等级与差等级的生态系统面积比例高达 98.91%。 全市的生态系 统质量没有明显改善,其中生态系统质量有不同程度改善的面积为 15.84%,质量降低的面积比例为 15.29%。 (4)生态系统格 局与质量变化的主要驱动力有城市扩张、农田开垦、退耕还林(草湿)、生态保护、矿山开采等,鄂尔多斯市生态系统质量与降 水、退耕还草工程、道路密度、温度、GDP1、放牧因子相关性显著。
Abstract:
Ecosystem change is one of the main driving forces of ecological problems. Studies on ecosystem pattern and quality change have great significance in understanding the relationship between human activities and ecosystem. Ordos has plenty of energy resources, but its ecological environment is fragile. Since 2000, simultaneously with the large-scale development of energy exploration, the ecological environment protection in Ordos is also strengthened. Therefore, it is of great value to study the relationship between the pattern and quality evolution of Ordos’s ecosystem, and to understand the relationship between the development and protection of ecologically fragile areas. In this study, remote sensing data and GIS technology were used to evaluate the characteristics and pattern of Ordos’s ecosystem and the characteristics of ecosystem quality, then, studied the trend of spatio-temporal changes from 2000 to 2010 in Ordos’s ecosystem and analyzed the driving force factors leading to the pattern and quality of Ordos’s ecosystem. The results show that: (1) Ordos’s ecosystem can be divided into seven types: forest, shrub, grassland, wetland, cultivated field, urban,desert and bare land. Among them, grassland, desert and bare land, farmland accounted for 64.46%, 21.34% and 5.93% of the Ordos’s city area respectively in 2010.(2) Ordos’s urban, shrub, forest area increased during the study period, while grassland, wetlands, farmland, desert bare area declined. Ordos’s urban area increased the largest, it was increased 33.37%. Simultaneously,Ordos’s grassland area decreased the largest, it was reduced 0.78%. In the middle of Ordos city, landscape pattern at the northeastern part changes the most. It mainly concentrated in the central and northeastern of Ordos which changes the most. (3)The quality of Ordos ecosystem was low, with 98.91%of its ecosystems belongs to low-grade and poor-grade ecosystems. Furthermore, the Ordos"s overall ecosystem quality showed no significant improvement during the study period, with some degree’s quality improved in 15.84% area, and decreased in 15.29% area. (4)The main driving forces of Ordos’s ecosystem structure and quality change are urban expansion, farmland reclamation, returning farmland to forest (or to grass, or to the wetland), ecological protection, mining and other factors. The correlation between the quality of Ordos’s ecosystem and precipitation, returning farmland to grass, road density, temperature, GDP1 and grazing factors were significant.
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