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任宗萍,马勇勇,王友胜,谢梦瑶,李鹏.生态建设条件下无定河不同地貌区径流变化归因分析.生态学报,2019,(12).http://dx.doi.org/10.5846/stxb201805221120  
生态建设条件下无定河不同地貌区径流变化归因分析
Runoff changes and its attribution analysis in tributaries of different geomorphic region in Wuding River under ecological construction
投稿时间:2018-05-22  修订日期:2019-05-20
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201805221120
关键词径流变化  归因分析  不同地貌区  生态建设
Key Wordsrunoff changes  attribution analysis  different geomorphic region  ecological construction
基金项目国家重点研发计划项目 (2017YFC0504704); 国家自然基金青年项目(41601291); 水利部黄土高原水土流失过程与控制重点实验室开放课题基金资助(201805)
作者单位E-mail
任宗萍 西安理工大学 省部共建西北旱区生态水利国家重点实验室 renzongping@163.com 
马勇勇 西安理工大学 省部共建西北旱区生态水利国家重点实验室  
王友胜 中国水利水电科学研究院 wangyousheng@iwhr.com 
谢梦瑶 西安理工大学 省部共建西北旱区生态水利国家重点实验室  
李鹏 西安理工大学 陕西省西北旱区生态水利工程国家重点实验室培育基地  
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摘要:
本文分析了无定河干流与其支流(黄土丘陵区的大理河和风沙区的海流兔河)的年径流变化(1960-2012)及其成因,并预测了其径流的变化趋势。结果表明:无定河及其不同地貌区支流海流兔河和大理河1960-2012年径流量均显著下降,但年降雨量未发生显著变化;无定河和海流兔河年蒸散量未发生显著变化,仅大理河年蒸散量在1990s年代后期显著增加。无定河径流变化突变点发生在1979年和1996年,海流兔河径流变化突变点在1971年和1990年,而大理河径流突变点发生在1971年。人类活动对大理河1972-2012年径流减少的贡献大约占50%,对海流兔河1972-1990和1991-2012两个时期径流减少的贡献分别为44.4%和82.4%。未来,无定河及其支流年径流量均呈持续下降趋势。归因分析表明大规模的水土保持治理措施是大理河径流减少的重要原因,而水利工程建设和农田灌溉引水是海流兔河径流下降的主要原因。因此,未来在大理河流域要优化现有植被建设布局,减少流域蒸散发,减缓径流下降;在海流兔河流域要进一步退耕还林(草),适当控制农田灌溉面积,提高灌溉用水效率,在减少灌溉用水的同时提高流域水源涵养能力。
Abstract:
In the study, the runoff changes and their attribution from 1960 to 2012 of Wuding River and its two tributaries, Hailiutu River locating in the wind-sand region and Dali River locating in the Loess hilly region, were analyzed. The future trends of runoff changes in the three rivers were also predicted. The results revealed that the runoff of the Wuding River, Hailiutu River and Dali rivers decreased significantly during the period 1960 to 2012, despite the annual rainfall in the three river basins did not change significantly in this period. The annual evapotranspiration of the Wuding River and the Hailiu River was almost constant, while the annual evapotranspiration of Dali River increased significantly since the late 1990s. Abrupt change points of runoff have been detected in 1979 and 1996 of Wuding River, in 1971 and 1990 of Hailiutu River, and in 1971 of Dali Rive, respectively. The human activities contributed to runoff reduction accounted for approximately 50% in Dali River from 1972 to 2012, for 44.4% and 82.4% during 1972-1990 and during 1991-2012, respectively, in Hailiutu River. In the future, the annual runoff of the Wuding River and its two tributaries, Dalihe River and Hailiutu River would continue to decline. Attribution analysis revealed that the large-scale soil and water conservation measures is the main reason for the runoff reduction in Dali River while the water conservancy project construction and the farmland irrigation are the main reason for runoff reduction in Hailiutu River. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize the existing vegetation pattern to reduce the evapotranspiration and decelerate the decrease rate of runoff in the Dali River basin. In Hailiutu River basin, Grain to Green, controlling the irrigation area of farmland, and improving the efficiency of irrigation water can be employed to increase the water conservation capacity.
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